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PublicationGuidelines for a Strategy for Ports and Inland Waterways(Washington, DC, 2022-03-28) World BankArgentina has a fairly developed transport system, which in the case of cargo shows a performance in progressive decline, with remarkable differences between components, logistics chains, and regions. Water transport, a key sector for the country’s connectivity with world markets, encounters difficulties when it comes to facilitating international trade. Two of these difficulties are of a structural nature, the first related to Argentina’s location in global maritime networks, far from key markets and major cargo corridors. The second concerns the limitations inherent to the waterways accessing ports with the largest movements of agri-bulks and containers, on the Río de La Plata and the Lower Parana River. Ports and waterways were subject to far-reaching reforms in the 1990s, fostering the greater participation of the private sector through dredging and port terminal operation concessions. At present, the contractual terms of these reforms are coming to an end, so the government now has the opportunity to redefine them, within the framework of a global context where maritime navigation - and cargo logistics in general - faces major changes and challenges. This is thus an auspicious moment to redefine strategies for ports and inland waterways, looking at safeguarding the country’s maritime connectivity and fostering greater competitiveness in international trade, whose growth is intrinsic to economic development and poverty reduction. PublicationClimate Change Risk Analysis of Argentina’s Land Transport Network(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Kesete, Yohannes Y.; Raffo, Veronica; Pant, Raghav; Koks, Elco E.; Paltan, Homero; Russell, Tom; Hall, Jim W.Argentina’s vast networks of national, provincial, and rural roads, spanning more than 240,000 kilometers, are critical for the country’s growth and development. However, climate change–induced hydrological extremes often disrupt road travel and raise logistics costs. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change induced flood risk on the transport network in Argentina. The study analyzes both current and future flooding scenarios, examines the resulting disruptions in the transport network, and estimates the direct and indirect macroeconomic losses. The study uses a system-of-systems approach, where network models are developed to suitably represent the transport system as nodes and links. For each node and link, the study analyzes criticality, vulnerability, and risk, and provides adaptation strategies. This paper is organized into four sections. Following the methodology and approach laid out in Section 2, the analysis and results are detailed in Section 3,Conclusions and policy recommendations are presented in Section 4. PublicationArgentina: Valuing Water(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-17) World BankThis report assesses water security in Argentina, using a conceptual framework developed by the World Bank. The effects of the pandemic reinforce the importance of safe access to water, hygiene, and sanitation, both as the first barrier against virus transmission and as an essential factor during recovery to mitigate secondary impacts on livelihoods and community well-being. The clear need to ensure that water is available in sufficient quantity and quality for human and productive uses, together with controlling the effects of the excess of water, highlights its central role in the economy, and in particular in securing the well-being of vulnerable communities. Argentina is already taking key steps to close water security gaps. It is increasing access to water and sanitation services with a focus on the most vulnerable; defining planning instruments such as national water plans; reinforcing tools such as the national information system for water and sanitation, the national water network information system (SNIH) and management and results plans (PGRs) for public service companies; expanding the regulatory framework with law 27,520 on minimum budgets for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change; and creating new entities such as the national directorate of drinking water and sanitation (DNAPyS). This study builds on these efforts and recommends steps to take toward becoming a more water-secure country by 2030. PublicationJobs and Distributive Effects of Infrastructure Investment: The Case of Argentina(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World BankThis paper assesses the short-term job generation potential of infrastructure investments in Argentina. The analysis is based on a 2017 Input-Output model with a breakdown of the construction sector into multiple infrastructure subsectors. The disaggregation was possible with a novel database with cost structures for about 70 infrastructure projects. The analysis reveals significant heterogeneity across subsectors of infrastructure investment, with job generation potential ranging between 15,000 and 49,000 annualized direct, indirect and induced jobs in the short-term per US1 billion dollars invested, depending on the type of infrastructure project considered. The results show that public housing and rural road maintenance, followed by railway construction, water and sanitation and urban infrastructure have the highest potential to generate jobs in the short-term. On the other hand, road construction and energy distribution are activities with lower short-term generation potential, but with higher long-term impact on GDP growth according to their elasticities estimates in the literature. The analysis reveals the characteristics of the projects that are determinants of the degree of job generation potential, these include: labor intensity, split between skilled and unskilled labor, ratio of imports to total investment, technology, among others. Infrastructure investment in sectors with high potential for employment generation compares favorably with pure demand stimulus check programs in terms of the effects on income growth for the poor and across all quintiles. However, infrastructure investment in sectors with low employment potential tend to have relatively more limited distributive effects. It is argued that to optimize job generation potential of infrastructure investment in the short-term as a fiscal stimulus, and in the long-term as a foundation for future growth, interventions must be ready for implementation, with low risk of delays, and selected based on sound economic analysis. Also, policymakers must pursue projects with high economic returns to enable a more productive and competitive economy and look for opportunities in which public sector investment can crowd in rather than crowd out private sector investment. PublicationMobilizing Private Finance for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-02) Abousleiman, Issam A.; Thompson Araujo, Jorge; Abousleiman, Issam A.; Thompson Araujo, JorgeThe Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC) has the largest stock of active PPP investments and the largest pipeline of infrastructure projects by volume globally, reflecting the central role of the private sector in the regional development agenda. Looking ahead, the region is making efforts to close the estimated US$180 billion per year investment gap with further private sector resources by: (i) improving the enabling environment for private investments to take place; and (ii) developing a robust pipeline of bankable projects. The WBG is well-placed to assist the region with financial support and knowledge services, as illustrated by the examples selected for part three of this report.