Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways Transport in Vietnam: Strengthening the Regulatory, Institutional and Funding Frameworks
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    Vietnam has a long history of using its rivers and canals for transportation of goods and people. Today, Vietnam’s waterways transport about 17 percent of all domestic goods tonage loaded in Vietnam and perform nearly 19 percent of all traffic tasks, a measure which combines both tonnes loaded and distance carried. These are very high levels by international standards, and Vietnam’s national freight task proportion is more than double that for China, the United States, and the European Union where inland waterways are also prevalent. Right after its integration into the international economic community in the late 1980s, Vietnam listed the development of inland waterways transport as one of its priorities to boost economic growth. Overcoming financing constraints, the country has made enormous strides in developing its inland waterways transport by efficiently exploiting the natural conditions of its rivers and canals. However, exploiting only the natural conditions of Vietnam’s inland waterways could diminish the country’s competitive advantage over time. In order to bring the waterways’ great potential into reality, further investment is required in the institutional structure, in strengthening the legal and regulatory framework, and in improvement of the funding framework for the sector. This report provides a comprehensive review and assessment of the challenges that the sector faces, along with a reform program recommended to the government of Vietnam that could help improve the enabling environment for the inland waterways transport industry and further its growth and technical sophistication.
  • Publication
    Fit for Purpose: Dam Rehabilitation Prioritization Tool in Zimbabwe
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    As a nation with highly variable and limited availability of water resources, Zimbabwe relies on a vast and aging water infrastructure stock that requires prompt rehabilitation to better support the water, food, and energy sectors. The country has limited water resources, with much of its area classified as semi-arid with highly variable rainfall. Zimbabwe relies on dams to store water to ensure irrigation for food security, water supply, and hydropower production. It has the second highest water storage capacity per capita in Southern Africa. There are about 10,000 dams, from large to small, and more publicly owned dams than private dams.
  • Publication
    Argentina: Valuing Water
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-17) World Bank
    This report assesses water security in Argentina, using a conceptual framework developed by the World Bank. The effects of the pandemic reinforce the importance of safe access to water, hygiene, and sanitation, both as the first barrier against virus transmission and as an essential factor during recovery to mitigate secondary impacts on livelihoods and community well-being. The clear need to ensure that water is available in sufficient quantity and quality for human and productive uses, together with controlling the effects of the excess of water, highlights its central role in the economy, and in particular in securing the well-being of vulnerable communities. Argentina is already taking key steps to close water security gaps. It is increasing access to water and sanitation services with a focus on the most vulnerable; defining planning instruments such as national water plans; reinforcing tools such as the national information system for water and sanitation, the national water network information system (SNIH) and management and results plans (PGRs) for public service companies; expanding the regulatory framework with law 27,520 on minimum budgets for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change; and creating new entities such as the national directorate of drinking water and sanitation (DNAPyS). This study builds on these efforts and recommends steps to take toward becoming a more water-secure country by 2030.
  • Publication
    Diagnosing Angola’s WASH Sector: An Urgent Call to Action
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-05-10) Lombana Cordoba, Camilo; Andres, Luis A.; Da Costa, Lucrecio A.M.; Fenwick, Crystal
    Angola’s human development potential is constrained by the state of its water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector. The Angola WASH sector diagnostic identifies key service-delivery problems in the WASH sector and their enabling environment through an institutional assessment and political economy analysis that takes into account the cross-sectoral links underpinning human development. Specifically, the diagnostic first explores inequalities in access to WASH services and their relationship to childhood health in Angola, using data from the most recent demographic health survey (DHS, 2015-16) and the joint monitoring program (JMP) of the United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization. Next, the diagnostic identifies key institutional constraints and bottlenecks through a comprehensive governance and public expenditure review of Angola’s WASH sector. Finally, the report provides guidance on how to improve the effectiveness of the WASH sector in support of broader policy goals to achieve sustainability and meet the targets of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The diagnostic answers the following questions, each of which probes the links between access to safe WASH services and human development and highlights opportunities to improve policy, investments, and practice: (1) what is the current level and quality of access to WASH services in Angola, and how does access vary temporally and spatially?; (2) what are the links and synergies between WASH and other sectors critical to human development in Angola?; (3) what constrains WASH service delivery; and (4) what solutions will have the greatest effect on overall human development?
  • Publication
    Tailings Storage Facilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are engineered structures that comprise the confining embankments (commonly referred to as tailings dams) and associated works and are designed to contain tailings (residue following extraction of valuable material from metal ore processing) and to manage associated water. TSF contains mixed waste material from mining processes in liquid or slurry form and must be responsibly managed to prevent impacts on human health and safety, the environment, and other infrastructure. However, TSFs have historically suffered more problems than water storage dams. Internationally, TSFs have a historical long-term average of more than one major incident or failure per year. To manage mining facilities responsibly, the TSF owner must understand the physical and chemical risks associated with the TSF and implement controls to reduce risks relating to potential health, safety, environmental, societal, business, and economic impacts in line with regulations. International organizations, regulators and industries have developed guidelines to aid owners in the management of TSFs. These guidelines were used to develop this Technical Note. The Note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies/investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation.
  • Publication
    Tunisia Infrastructure Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank Group
    Tunisia’s has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia’s infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia’s infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government.
  • Publication
    Water Infrastructure Resilience: Examples of Dams, Wastewater Treatment Plants, and Water Supply and Sanitation Systems
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Stip, Clementine; Mao, Zhimin; Bonzanigo, Laura; Browder, Greg; Tracy, Jacob
    Water systems are a special kind of infrastructure systems because they perform a dual role: theyprovide water services while also reducing risks to other services from natural hazards such asfloods and droughts. This report aims to inform water system managers on the importance of andmeasures to build the resilience of water service provision to natural hazards and climate riskswhile ensuring that water systems can safeguard service provision by reducing their exposure tothe risks associated with natural hazards. When choosing resilience measures, water systemsmanagers should consider the following six principles while also incorporating the concept ofdecision making under deep uncertainty: 1) knowing the system through network analysis andcriticality assessment; 2) improving maintenance to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience;3) involving users for active demand management; 4) working with nature to manage and respondto risks; 5) developing and improving contingency management; and 6) applying innovation whereappropriate. In addition, since water systems reduce the risks associated with certain naturalhazards to other services like power, transport and water itself, such safeguard services shouldbe accounted for when making the case for resilience investments in water systems.
  • Publication
    Building the Resilience of WSS Utilities to Climate Change and Other Threats: A Road Map
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-29) World Bank Group
    Water supply and sanitation (WSS) utilities are expected to become increasingly susceptible to the expected impacts of climate change. WSS utility planners and engineers have dealt with natural climate variances and disaster planning as part of the design process for many years. However, the traditional methods for these plans have not considered the deep uncertainty surrounding many future conditions, which are further exacerbated by climate change. To help utilities incorporate resilience and robustness in their choices, this road map proposes a process in three phases that can inform the design of strategies necessary to WSS services provision. The road map builds on the understanding that climate change is most often an amplifier of existing uncertainties (many of which are threats), and, as such, should not be evaluated as a stand-alone impact. The approach reveals the strengths and vulnerabilities of investment plans concisely and helps utilities invest robustly by identifying near-term, no-regret projects that can be undertaken now, while maintaining flexibility in pursuing additional actions adaptively as future conditions evolve. These results can be achieved both with a qualitative exploration and a quantitative assessment, depending on the context and the resources available.
  • Publication
    Romania Water Diagnostic Report: Moving toward EU Compliance, Inclusion, and Water Security
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) World Bank Group
    This diagnostic report was prepared by the World Bank to support its water sector dialogue with the Government of Romania. It aims to provide stakeholders, especially from the Romanian Government and the European Commission, with a comprehensive stock-taking of the situation in the Romanian water sector in 2017, 10 years after the country joined the EU. The report documents the current situation, discusses the main lessons learned from reforms in water resources management, water supply sanitation and irrigation, and identifies the key water challenges faced by Romania. While not pretending to cover all possible water-related issues (due inter alia to limited access to some information), it seeks to identify the key policy issues and indicate what steps the government could consider in the near future. The situation in the water sector in Romania is analyzed through the lens of water security, with a focus on compliance with EU water legislation and the inclusion of the poor. Water security is a broad concept that encompasses ensuring sustainable use of water resources, delivering affordable services to all, and mitigating water-related risks in a context of change — the goal being to build a water secure future for the people, the economy and the environment in a context of global changes. In the case of Romania, the over-arching concept of water security is closely linked to compliance and inclusion.
  • Publication
    Resilient Water Supply and Sanitation Services: The Case of Japan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01) World Bank
    Natural disasters have increasingly damaged water supply and sanitation (WSS) facilities and infrastructure, leaving entire communities without safe and reliable drinking water and the appropriate disposal of wastewater. These emergency events could arise from inundation of facilities, loss of electricity, and exposure and disruption of infrastructures. Less severe impacts can arise from increased siltation of reservoirs and slow-onset events such as droughts, thus having longer-term effects on the resilience and reliability of services. These WSS service failures or interruptions could set off a cascading effect across interconnected infrastructure systems including public health and fire services, which in turn could pose both direct and indirect economic impacts. Japan has built the resilience of its WSS services through an adaptive management approach based on lessons learned from past natural disasters. This experience offers key insights for low- and middle-income countries seeking to sustain and build resilience of WSS services.