Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Climate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Compendium Volume: A Focus on Infrastructure Project Design in Key Sectors
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume.
  • Publication
    Seismic Risk
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    The importance of ensuring that dam structures can withstand earthquakes has been recognized and practiced for many years. The technical capability of the dam engineering industry in the seismic design of dam structures has increased considerably since the 1980-1990s. Dams designed using modern seismic engineering principles that are well constructed have performed well during earthquakes, with only modest damage. Older dams that have suffered damage from earthquakes are likely to have been subjected to poor construction or maintenance, or they lack modern defensive design measures to prevent failure. Seismic hazard varies around the world. Some countries experience major earthquakes frequently, whereas other countries have hardly ever experienced one. This technical note contains the minimum level of technical detail for seismic design of new structures and seismic assessment of existing structures, so that non-specialists can use it. The key objective is to provide guidance for addressing seismic aspects of dam projects early on in project preparation. The note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation. The material presented should be used to assess the required level of seismic hazard assessment, review the adequacy of the dam’s seismic design and resilience measures, and recommend required expertise for quality assurance of projects involving dams in seismic areas.
  • Publication
    Hydrological Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note contains a level of technical detail that non-specialists can use for guidance in addressing the hydrological aspects of dam projects early in the project preparation. It is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation and implementation. The material presented should be used to prepare terms of reference on such studies and to assess the adequacy of methodology proposed by consultants in response to tenders for advisory services. It is recommended that, reading the Note, the client and the World Bank project teams will assess the required level of hydrological expertise in the teams. The hydrological subjects this Note covers are typical in World Bank–supported operations. There are several other subjects pertaining to hydrology that it does not cover. Enlarging the scope to those subjects will defeat the objective and turn the Note into a handbook on the vast discipline of hydrology. The same selective effort has been applied in choosing the references that the reader can consult to focus on specific subjects. For that reason, the list has been limited to essential references that provide general guidance on required hydrology studies, whereas the additional sources complement the general guidance with references dealing with specific aspects of the project hydrology.
  • Publication
    Tailings Storage Facilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are engineered structures that comprise the confining embankments (commonly referred to as tailings dams) and associated works and are designed to contain tailings (residue following extraction of valuable material from metal ore processing) and to manage associated water. TSF contains mixed waste material from mining processes in liquid or slurry form and must be responsibly managed to prevent impacts on human health and safety, the environment, and other infrastructure. However, TSFs have historically suffered more problems than water storage dams. Internationally, TSFs have a historical long-term average of more than one major incident or failure per year. To manage mining facilities responsibly, the TSF owner must understand the physical and chemical risks associated with the TSF and implement controls to reduce risks relating to potential health, safety, environmental, societal, business, and economic impacts in line with regulations. International organizations, regulators and industries have developed guidelines to aid owners in the management of TSFs. These guidelines were used to develop this Technical Note. The Note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies/investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation.
  • Publication
    Portfolio Risk Assessment Using Risk Index
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note provides detailed information on the Brazilian risk classification system using the RI approach and the Indian RI system for the initial risk screening of a large portfolio of existing dams. Annex A provides basic information about the RI approach used in Quebec, Canada, for its dam classification system. These RIs are used for prioritization of required remedial works and other safety requirements. It should be noted, however, that RI is also a basic tool for preliminary level risk analyses for portfolios of dams and initial screening of risky dams, which may need to be supplemented by more advanced methods, depending on the type and potential risk of the dams. Because RI largely relies on visual inspection of the dams’ conditions, some critical failure modes could be missed. underestimated, or overestimated. In the higher risk cases, or whenever deemed appropriate, more detailed risk analyses, such as potential failure mode analysis (PFMA), can fill some of the gaps.
  • Publication
    Geotechnical Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note is prepared to provide guidance to the World Bank task teams and clients regarding geological and geotechnical issues and recommended risk mitigation and management measures. The investigation, design, and construction of dams should identify and consider all potential hazards and threats to dam safety while being cognizant of the associated consequences of dam failure.
  • Publication
    Potential Failure Mode Analysis
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Potential failure modes analysis (PFMA) is a process to systematically identify, describe, and evaluate the ways in which a dam and its appurtenant structures could fail under postulated loading conditions. Since 2002, PFMA has been introduced as part of five-year inspections under the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulations for nonfederal hydropower dams in the United States. The PFMA is intended to provide an understanding of how and why dams fail by looking at how dams behave normally, learning to identify early signs that something is wrong, understanding the hazards and risks imposed by the dam, and being prepared for the unexpected behavior that leads to failure. The World Bank has assisted some countries in applying the PFMA for safety review of major existing dams and found that the tool is useful in prioritizing additional investigations needs and remedial works in coordination with key stakeholders, including owners, operators, and designers. This Technical Note contains guidance for preparing PFMA terms of reference for: (a) the FERC-based standard approach to PFMA; and (b) a simplified PFMA approach.
  • Publication
    Mongolia InfraSAP: Infrastructure for Connectivity and Economic Diversification
    (World Bank, Ulaanbaatar, 2020-11-10) World Bank
    Like many emerging economies, policy discussions on social and economic growth in Mongolia often gravitate to transport, energy and digital infrastructure as the backbone. ‘What infrastructure?’ and ‘infrastructure for what?’ are equally important questions given the aspirations to unlock new drivers of growth beyond mining and export of primary products. Mongolia’s vast territorial expanse and low population density create unique challenges for economic development in general and infrastructure investments in particular. Sandwiched between China and the Russia, two of the largest countries and economies in the world, Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. With just over 3.2 million people inhabiting a territory of 1.564 million square kilometers (more than six times the size of the United Kingdom and less than a third the population of London), Mongolia has a population density of 2.1 people per square kilometer. About half the population—some 1.4 million people—live in the capital city Ulaanbaatar. The rest of the population is spread across small urban centers and vast steppes. Given the spatial and density challenges, the conventional ‘build and they shall come’ approach to developing infrastructure has proved sub-optimal. Mongolia has some of the largest average transport distances (600km) and highest logistics costs (30% of GDP). The infrastructure challenge is made worse by the limited financing options. This infraSAP presents a more sophisticated approach which incorporates strategic value chain analysis and disaggregated modeling of freight movements, and then targets infrastructure investment for amplified impact. In this approach, infrastructure is located at the highest concentrations of economic activity and is developed as part of an integrated national logistics system. This surgical approach informs more targeted policy decisions on how to use scarce resources to accelerate economic diversification and competitiveness while addressing institutional bottlenecks.
  • Publication
    Good Practice Note on Dam Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) World Bank
    The objective of this good practice note (GPN) on dam safety is to provide additional guidance to World Bank staff on the application of relevant requirements under the environmental and social framework (ESF). This GPN provides guidance on using a risk management approach to the application of the dam safety requirements. The guidance contained in this note is designed to enhance the quality of practice without creating new requirements for the application of the ESF. The GPN provides guidance on compliance requirements, a risk management approach to dam safety, risk analysis tools, quality of information and capacity, application to World Bank operations, and procedural aspects. The GPN pertains to: (a) construction of new dams or dams under construction (DUC) under investment project financing (IPF); (b) rehabilitation of existing dams under IPF; and (c) existing dams or DUC that are not financed under IPF, on which the project relies or may rely.
  • Publication
    Nepal Infrastructure Sector Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02-28) World Bank
    Despite several severe shocks in the past, conflict, unstable governments, earthquakes, and trade disruptions, Nepal has made strong progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity. With the decade-long peace and constitutional process concluded, the Government of Nepal is keen to accelerate economic growth and become a middle-income country by 2030. Between 1996 and 2011, the proportion of households living in extreme poverty fell from 46 to 15 percent. Nepal's macroeconomic fundamentals have remained sound. This report takes place as Nepal transitions to a federal structure. This poses a unique and unprecedented opportunity to establish clarity of functions, expenditures, and revenue assignments, as well as changing jurisdictions across various levels of governments and agencies, including as they interface with the private sector. The new government is in place and emphasizing the need for stronger cooperation between the public and private sectors. Against this background, this report assesses the energy (electricity generation, transmission, and distribution), transport (roads, airports, and urban transport), and urban (water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management) infrastructure sectors. The report recommends interventions that combine short-term and longer-term structural and policy changes with tailored project implementation approaches. Completing projects will help stress test the framework and system and identify potential bottlenecks that can be corrected. Such a learning-by-doing approach will further help prioritize the implementation of the initiatives proposed in this report and target capacity development initiatives in the areas of greatest need.