Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Mongolia InfraSAP: Infrastructure for Connectivity and Economic Diversification
    (World Bank, Ulaanbaatar, 2020-11-10) World Bank
    Like many emerging economies, policy discussions on social and economic growth in Mongolia often gravitate to transport, energy and digital infrastructure as the backbone. ‘What infrastructure?’ and ‘infrastructure for what?’ are equally important questions given the aspirations to unlock new drivers of growth beyond mining and export of primary products. Mongolia’s vast territorial expanse and low population density create unique challenges for economic development in general and infrastructure investments in particular. Sandwiched between China and the Russia, two of the largest countries and economies in the world, Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. With just over 3.2 million people inhabiting a territory of 1.564 million square kilometers (more than six times the size of the United Kingdom and less than a third the population of London), Mongolia has a population density of 2.1 people per square kilometer. About half the population—some 1.4 million people—live in the capital city Ulaanbaatar. The rest of the population is spread across small urban centers and vast steppes. Given the spatial and density challenges, the conventional ‘build and they shall come’ approach to developing infrastructure has proved sub-optimal. Mongolia has some of the largest average transport distances (600km) and highest logistics costs (30% of GDP). The infrastructure challenge is made worse by the limited financing options. This infraSAP presents a more sophisticated approach which incorporates strategic value chain analysis and disaggregated modeling of freight movements, and then targets infrastructure investment for amplified impact. In this approach, infrastructure is located at the highest concentrations of economic activity and is developed as part of an integrated national logistics system. This surgical approach informs more targeted policy decisions on how to use scarce resources to accelerate economic diversification and competitiveness while addressing institutional bottlenecks.
  • Publication
    Good Practice Note on Dam Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) World Bank
    The objective of this good practice note (GPN) on dam safety is to provide additional guidance to World Bank staff on the application of relevant requirements under the environmental and social framework (ESF). This GPN provides guidance on using a risk management approach to the application of the dam safety requirements. The guidance contained in this note is designed to enhance the quality of practice without creating new requirements for the application of the ESF. The GPN provides guidance on compliance requirements, a risk management approach to dam safety, risk analysis tools, quality of information and capacity, application to World Bank operations, and procedural aspects. The GPN pertains to: (a) construction of new dams or dams under construction (DUC) under investment project financing (IPF); (b) rehabilitation of existing dams under IPF; and (c) existing dams or DUC that are not financed under IPF, on which the project relies or may rely.
  • Publication
    Belt and Road Initiative: Azerbaijan Country Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Bogdan, Olena; Najdov, Evgenij
    Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), announced in 2013 and formalized in 2015, is China’s long-term commitment and aims to improve connectivity within Asia as well as between Asia and other continents via transport corridors (rail, road, maritime, air) and deeper economic, political, and cultural integration between China and the countries in Europe and Africa (National Development and Reform Commission, 2015). This study analyzes a potential impact of the BRI on Azerbaijan’s economy by focusing on (1) Azerbaijan’s connectivity and trade with the BRI economies; (2) its recent improvements in transport, power, and ICT infrastructure as part of the China, Central Asia, West Asia economic corridor; (3) its remaining connectivity gaps and challenges; and (4) potential economic effects of BRI on Azerbaijan’s trade, foreign investment, growth and welfare. Finally, the study concludes with policy implications that would mitigate the BRI risks and maximize the benefits.
  • Publication
    Tunisia Infrastructure Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank Group
    Tunisia’s has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia’s infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia’s infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government.
  • Publication
    Stronger Power: Improving Power Sector Resilience to Natural Hazards
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Nicolas, Claire; Rentschler, Jun; Potter van Loon, Albertine; Oguah, Sam; Schweikert, Amy; Deinert, Mark; Koks, Elco; Arderne, Christopher; Cubas, Diana; Li, Jie; Ichikawa, Eriko
    The power sector is both highly vulnerable to natural hazards and a priority for any country'srecovery and reconstruction. After Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico in 2017, most of the power gridwas down. One year and tens of billions of dollars later some customers were yet to be reconnected to the main grid. This type of long and widespread power outage has major consequences on people's health and well-being, for instance through lacking access to refrigeration for food and medicine, and on the ability of firms to produce and provide people with goods, services, jobs, and income. In most countries, the power system is designed to cope with high-frequency but relatively low impact events. Low-frequency, high-impact events – such as many natural disasters – are rarely considered fully, and the implementation of planned management measures is often patchy. Furthermore, the power system is a special kind of infrastructure due to the heterogeneity of the generation assets and its wide spatial distribution. The latter means that power systems are often exposed to natural hazards and sometimes to more than one hazard, leading to high repair costs when disasters strike. This paper, prepared as a sectoral note for the Lifelines report on infrastructure resilience, investigates the vulnerability of the power system to natural hazards and climate change, and provides recommendations to increase its resilience. It first describes how power outages are often the consequence of natural disasters and outlines the main vulnerabilities of the power sector. It then proposes a range of approaches and solutions for building a more resilient power sector – from increased robustness to greater flexibility – showing that the additional cost of resilience is not high if resources are well spent. Finally, it describes how emergency preparedness and disaster recovery encompass not only technical aspects, like asset strengthening or criticality analysis, but also "softer" skills, like governance, regulatory or capacity building, and education.
  • Publication
    Nepal Energy Infrastructure Sector Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-03) World Bank Group
    The purpose of this report is to identify how to maximize finance available to Nepal in the electricity sector. This report identifies financing needs and constraints for the energy sector in the short to medium term and outlines a road map for overcoming these constraints and seizing opportunities to gradually achieve a sectoral transformation. The report forms part of the World Bank Group’s Infrastructure Sector Assessment Program (INFRA-SAP).
  • Publication
    Nepal Infrastructure Sector Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02-28) World Bank
    Despite several severe shocks in the past, conflict, unstable governments, earthquakes, and trade disruptions, Nepal has made strong progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity. With the decade-long peace and constitutional process concluded, the Government of Nepal is keen to accelerate economic growth and become a middle-income country by 2030. Between 1996 and 2011, the proportion of households living in extreme poverty fell from 46 to 15 percent. Nepal's macroeconomic fundamentals have remained sound. This report takes place as Nepal transitions to a federal structure. This poses a unique and unprecedented opportunity to establish clarity of functions, expenditures, and revenue assignments, as well as changing jurisdictions across various levels of governments and agencies, including as they interface with the private sector. The new government is in place and emphasizing the need for stronger cooperation between the public and private sectors. Against this background, this report assesses the energy (electricity generation, transmission, and distribution), transport (roads, airports, and urban transport), and urban (water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management) infrastructure sectors. The report recommends interventions that combine short-term and longer-term structural and policy changes with tailored project implementation approaches. Completing projects will help stress test the framework and system and identify potential bottlenecks that can be corrected. Such a learning-by-doing approach will further help prioritize the implementation of the initiatives proposed in this report and target capacity development initiatives in the areas of greatest need.
  • Publication
    Mobilizing Private Finance for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-02) Abousleiman, Issam A.; Thompson Araujo, Jorge; Abousleiman, Issam A.; Thompson Araujo, Jorge
    The Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC) has the largest stock of active PPP investments and the largest pipeline of infrastructure projects by volume globally, reflecting the central role of the private sector in the regional development agenda. Looking ahead, the region is making efforts to close the estimated US$180 billion per year investment gap with further private sector resources by: (i) improving the enabling environment for private investments to take place; and (ii) developing a robust pipeline of bankable projects. The WBG is well-placed to assist the region with financial support and knowledge services, as illustrated by the examples selected for part three of this report.
  • Publication
    Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World Bank
    The development of Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of the operation, maintenance, surveillance and emergency preparedness programs adopted by dam authorities. Matrices were developed for dam owners and operators to assess the effectiveness of dam safety programs against in-country standards and guidelines, or, good industry practice as considered most appropriate. The matrices were developed through an iterative and consultative process that included a detailed review of the legal hierarchy, specific dam safety regulations and technical guidelines, the roles and responsibilities of the different institutions involved, followed by expert review and verification. The primary benefit of using dam safety-related Maturity Matrices is to improve the understanding of dam safety programs across a range of different metrics. This allows owners and operators to monitor performance over time and inform the prioritization of resources for dam operation, maintenance and safety improvement. The matrices also allow regulatory bodies to assess performance across different owners and operators, and contrast the effectiveness across dam management units to identify systemic issues and target interventions and remedies accordingly.
  • Publication
    The Status of Infrastructure Services in East Asia and Pacific
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-10-03) World Bank Group
    Infrastructure plays an important role in the economic and social development of any country. Access to reliable, high-quality, efficient and affordable infrastructure services is a critical factor for reducing poverty and inequality, promoting economic growth and improving productivity, creating jobs, and promoting environmental sustainability and resilience in the face of major uncertainties including climate change. Given the World Bank Group’s active role in infrastructure development, the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) regional team has commissioned this report to take stock of the current levels of access, quality, tariffs, and costs associated with infrastructure services. This report aims to provide an overview of the status of economic infrastructure in several key sectors in the EAP region, particularly for networked infrastructure services such as urban water supply and sewerage, road transport, and electricity distribution. The exercise aims to shed light on the areas of greatest need, as well as to identify which sectors and geographical areas most require focused investments. The report also offers an account of trends and current levels of private sector investment in EAP countries to help inform financing strategies and decisions.