Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Burundi Digital Economy Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12-21) World Bank Group
    Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for accelerating digital adoption in Burundi. Burundi’s current sectoral strategies acknowledge the importance of investing in digital technology. However, these lack an overarching approach with an actionable roadmap and clear resources behind it. Burundi’s mobile network coverage and mobile broadband uptake continues to be characterized by a stark urban-rural divide. Digital platforms are paramount in connecting people, businesses, and the government - enabling both transactions and the exchange of information, goods, and services in more efficient and convenient ways. At present Burundi’s digital entrepreneurship sector remains embryonic, hampered by barriers such as limited ecosystem support and weak access to financing. Whether through the provision of public services closer to its citizens with digital platforms, or through increased financial inclusion enabled by digital financial services and dynamic digital ecosystems, Burundi stands to gain from a continued investment in the foundations of its digital economy. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two reviews cross-cutting factors that affect the strategic, institutional, and regulatory environment for the digital agenda in Burundi. The report proceeds to explore the five foundational pillars of the digital economy, in more depth. Chapter three looks at the access, quality, and usage of digital infrastructure, as well as the dynamics of the connectivity market, including what it will take to get more Burundians online. Chapter four discusses the current state of digital skills attainment and coverage. Chapter five analyzes the current application and scope for expanding the use of digital platforms - both in the public and private sector. Chapter six examines the state and uptake of digital financial services (DFS) among individuals, businesses and by government. Finally, chapter seven assesses the state of digital entrepreneurship and the culture of innovation in Burundi.
  • Publication
    Reforming and Rebuilding Lebanon's Port Sector: Lessons from Global Best Practices
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World Bank
    On August 4, 2020, a massive explosion in the Port of Beirut (PoB) devastated the city, killing at least 200 people, wounding thousands, and displacing around 300,000. A Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA), prepared by the World Bank in cooperation with the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU), estimated damage to the port at about 350 million dollars. This Note was prepared by the World Bank to provide guidance to policy makers in Lebanon on the crucial additional requirements to be undertaken in the rebuilding of the PoB in terms of both improving its resilience and addressing the underlying governance concerns that are broadly acknowledged to have contributed to the tragedy. The Note summarizes global best practices in port management and border management reforms. The PoB is the main gateway for the external trade of Lebanon, but it has failed in the key role as an enabler of economic development in the country. Despite the growth in volumes and revenues in the port over the last 10-15 years, the PoB has evidently failed to guarantee safe and efficient operations, and to undertake the necessary long-term planning for the benefit of the port and the country. More importantly it has underperformed in its key role as an enabler of economic development at a national level and has made a limited contribution to fostering socio-economic development more broadly. These failures are a direct result of the current governance framework of the PoB. Lebanon adheres to a port management system that arguably reflects the complex political-economic realities, and which as a result run counter to many recognized good practices. The governance of the sector is a patchwork of ad-hoc institutions, structures, laws and regulations that preclude the development of a coherent integrated strategy. The current framework inhibits efficiency as several key government agencies for transport, trade, and border management have overlapping mandates, divergent strategies, often operate under outdated processes and regulations and do not coordinate among themselves. Since 1990, the PoB has been managed by a temporary administrative committee, established in a legal vacuum. This has resulted in serious governance, transparency, and accountability issues. The Lebanese Customs is not structured to perform its mission properly. Its two parallel institutions, the Higher Council for Customs and the Customs Directorate have proven to be inefficient and subject to political exploitation and power struggles. The tragic explosion in PoB clearly illustrates the evident shortcomings of the current institutional set-up as well as the risks emanating from the no-reform scenario.
  • Publication
    Albania E-Commerce Diagnostic: Leveraging the Digital Trade Opportunity
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World Bank
    E-commerce, defined broadly as the sale of goods and services facilitated through the internet, is a key growth opportunity for Albania. Sellers can benefit from internet marketing, 24-hour online shopping and remote transaction settlement to reach more customers. Buyers, including both consumers as well as businesses that source their inputs, stand to gain through greater choice, convenience and market competition. With the emergence of new companies offering enabling services for e-commerce, including technology companies, payment services and logistics, a variety of new job opportunities is emerging. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, e-commerce has also emerged as an important pillar in the fight against the virus. This report identifies key recommendations for Albania to fully leverage e-commerce as economic development opportunity.
  • Publication
    Togo Digital Economy Diagnostic Report
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-26) World Bank Group
    Rapid digital transformation has been re-shaping the global economy, changing fundamental patterns of socioeconomic activities and accelerating further in the wake of the global Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In this context, relying on the Digital Economy for Africa (DE4A) methodology, the report conducts a timely diagnostic of the state of digital economy in Togo. Togo is bordered by Ghana, Benin, and Burkina Faso, and has a coastline that runs along the Gulf of Guinea. The government of Togo (GoT) is cognizant of the importance of the transformation towards a digital economy. As the government of Togo launches into the development of a new strategy for digital transformation “Togo Digital 2025” the current diagnostic would provide useful information to use as a basis for such strategic document. This report aims to highlight opportunities to further develop Togo’s digital economy with a special focus on policies that can bridge the digital divide and help Togo achieve the DE4A targets. This report aims to provide practical and actionable recommendations that inform decision makers on priority areas for development.
  • Publication
    Business Regulation in South Asia and the Belt and Road Initiative
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-24) World Bank
    This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of the business environment in six South Asian countries, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, to examine whether business regulatory requirements in these countries hinder them from fully benefiting from BRI project spillovers. The analysis is based on available secondary data sources and responses to a structured questionnaire sent to selected private sector participants in each of these countries, eliciting information on the law, regulation, and practice in a wide range of thematic areas influencing the overall business and regulatory environment. Survey respondents identified nine key themes as the most challenging for the private sector, including from the perspective of potential benefits from BRI-induced opportunities. The thematic areas are: (a) licensing and inspection requirements; (b) regulations and practices governing foreign investment; (c) access to resources such as land, credit, and electricity; (d) regulatory restrictions on the operation of foreign firms, such as local content requirements and currency repatriation; (e) regulatory governance and corruption and state capture; (f) predictability and quality of the regulatory framework, especially corporate taxation; (g) government procurement laws and practice; (h) effective dispute settlement and grievance mechanisms; and (i) trade and customs regulations. The identified thematic areas promote connectivity and regional integration and thus are particularly relevant from the BRI perspective. Improvements along different dimensions of these thematic areas will likely enable countries in the region to gain from BRI-induced opportunities.
  • Publication
    Mongolia InfraSAP: Infrastructure for Connectivity and Economic Diversification
    (World Bank, Ulaanbaatar, 2020-11-10) World Bank
    Like many emerging economies, policy discussions on social and economic growth in Mongolia often gravitate to transport, energy and digital infrastructure as the backbone. ‘What infrastructure?’ and ‘infrastructure for what?’ are equally important questions given the aspirations to unlock new drivers of growth beyond mining and export of primary products. Mongolia’s vast territorial expanse and low population density create unique challenges for economic development in general and infrastructure investments in particular. Sandwiched between China and the Russia, two of the largest countries and economies in the world, Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. With just over 3.2 million people inhabiting a territory of 1.564 million square kilometers (more than six times the size of the United Kingdom and less than a third the population of London), Mongolia has a population density of 2.1 people per square kilometer. About half the population—some 1.4 million people—live in the capital city Ulaanbaatar. The rest of the population is spread across small urban centers and vast steppes. Given the spatial and density challenges, the conventional ‘build and they shall come’ approach to developing infrastructure has proved sub-optimal. Mongolia has some of the largest average transport distances (600km) and highest logistics costs (30% of GDP). The infrastructure challenge is made worse by the limited financing options. This infraSAP presents a more sophisticated approach which incorporates strategic value chain analysis and disaggregated modeling of freight movements, and then targets infrastructure investment for amplified impact. In this approach, infrastructure is located at the highest concentrations of economic activity and is developed as part of an integrated national logistics system. This surgical approach informs more targeted policy decisions on how to use scarce resources to accelerate economic diversification and competitiveness while addressing institutional bottlenecks.
  • Publication
    Road Safety Management Capacity Assessment for Samoa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-01) World Bank
    This Road Safety Management Capacity Assessment (RSMCA) seeks to gain a broad understanding of the Government of Samoa’s road safety management capacity to support its plans to improve road safety outcomes throughout the country. The RSMCA follows the seven critical road safety institutional management functions (Bliss and Breen 2013) to identify key challenges and provide recommendations for improvement in road safety management, and similarly addresses the Safe System pillars for the interventions level. The seven institutional management functions include: results focus, coordination, legislation, finance and resource allocation, promotion and advocacy, monitoring and evaluation, and research and development of knowledge transfer. The Safe System pillars include road safety management, safe roads and mobility, safe vehicles, safe road users, post-crash care, and safe speeds. The RSMCA’s alignment with both the road safety institutional management functions and the Safe System Approach in turn aims to help the Government of Samoa to prioritize targeted next steps to address road crash death and serious injury in the country.
  • Publication
    Uganda Digital Economy Assessment: Country Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11) World Bank
    Uganda’s digital economy is at a ascent stage of development but there is tremendous opportunity to invest in strategic areas. This Digital Economy for Africa diagnostic presents an overview of digital infrastructure and access, digital entrepreneurship, digital financial services, digital skills and digital platforms in Uganda and identifies key activities that can be undertaken to capitalize on opportunities in the digital economy.
  • Publication
    Benchmarking Infrastructure Development 2020: Assessing Regulatory Quality to Prepare, Procure, and Manage PPPs and Traditional Public Investment in Infrastructure Projects
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10-07) World Bank Group
    Appropriate and effective regulatory frameworks remain crucial for ensuring that investments in infrastructure are done strategically and efficiently. Benchmarking infrastructure development 2020 assesses the regulatory quality for preparation, procurement, and management of large infrastructure projects through both public-private partnerships (PPPs) and traditional public investments (TPIs). The report highlights the key findings resulting from the data and is organized around the infrastructure project cycle phases for both the PPP and the pilot TPI assessment. Both the PPP and TPI assessment cover the core phases of the infrastructure project cycle: preparation, procurement, and contract management. For PPPs, management of unsolicited proposals (USPs) is also assessed. For TPI, the regulatory framework to manage infrastructure assets after construction is also assessed. Disclosure of information for PPPs and procurement practices for innovation for TPIs are also discussed in the report as cross-cutting areas of interest. With reference to a highway transport project as a guiding example to ensure cross-comparability, the report presents the regulatory landscape at the end of June 2018 to develop infrastructure projects.
  • Publication
    Road Geohazard Risk Management Handbook
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
    This handbook outlines an approach to proactively manage the risks of geohazards on roads, road users, and the people living near and affected by road. This handbook is structured to support road geohazard risk management sequentially and systematically: Part I, Framework for Road Geohazard Risk Management, helps users understand the framework for road geohazard risk management, introduces some basic concepts, and provides context to the overall handbook; Part II, Institutional Capacity and Coordination, covers the institutional arrangements that are necessary for the successful implementation of geohazard management; Part III, Systems Planning, covers the systems planning aspects, pertaining to the identification, assessment, and evaluation of risks, along with raising awareness of disasters; Part IV, Engineering and Design, deals with the engineered solutions to address geohazard risks, giving examples of different solutions to particular risk types; Part V, Operations and Maintenance, focuses on the operations and maintenance aspects of geohazard management whether the maintenance of previously engineered solutions or the nonengineered solutions available to mitigate the impacts of geohazard risks; Part VI, Contingency Planning, addresses contingency programming issues, such as postdisaster response and recovery, and the important issue of funding arrangements; and Part VII, References and Resource Materials, contains the reference list and additional online resources. Additionally, this handbook includes standard templates for terms of reference (ToRs) that can be adapted for technical assistance projects for road geohazard risk management (see Appendix A) and an operation manual (OM) for the practitioners involved with road geohazard risk management (see Appendix B).