Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Energy Sector: MyanmarvInfrastructure Monitoring
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World Bank
    Myanmar’s energy sector has been severely affected by the dual shocks of the February 2021 coup and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developments in the energy sector after the coup have undermined nascent energy sector reforms over the last few years, including reforms that led to improved service delivery, restructured electricity tariffs, and increased electricity access. Constraints in human resources resulting from the dismissal of over 4,400 staff in key entities and departments under the Ministry of Electricity and Energy (MoEE) has put power sector operation at risk. Public boycott of electricity payments and rising costs of electricity due to dollar-denominated independent power producers have adversely affected the financial viability of the power sector. The political instability in the aftermath of the coup has led to significant operational and financial burdens on the sector, affecting the sector financial viability and fiscal sustainability. Investor confidence has plummeted amid uncertainty and a worsening investment climate, jeopardizing the implementation of approved power projects, including renewable solar. While the global commodity rally continues, there are serious challenges ahead, including the need for skilled labor to ensure electricity reliability, maintain the security of power infrastructure, and increase electricity revenues.
  • Publication
    Renewable Energy Jobs and Sector Skills Mapping for Pakistan
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has adopted ambitious national renewable energy (RE) targets under the RE policy 2019. The policy sets out a growth trajectory for grid connected, non-hydro renewables, mandating at least 20 percent renewables in the country’s installed power generation capacity by 2025 and 30 percent by 2030. The government has simultaneously approved a comprehensive power generation capacity expansion plan, the integrated generation capacity expansion plan 2021-2030. Since large hydropower makes up the bulk of capacity additions in the IGCEP, new wind, solar, and bagasse projects in the IGCEP account for approximately 11,700 MW compared to 16,300 MW of non-hydro RE needed to meet the national RE targets. To capitalize on the employment creation potential of the RE targets and the IGCEP, policy makers will have to anticipate changes in workforce trends and develop a preemptive plan to manage skill requirements and prevent workforce shortages. This study was commissioned by the World Bank to facilitate cohesive RE workforce planning and identify skill gaps that can inhibit RE investments in Pakistan. The findings of the study will help inform skill development in RE by providing policy makers and other stakeholders, including the higher education commission (HEC) and the national vocational and technical training commission (NAVTTC), with indicative employment projections required for long-term planning.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways Transport in Vietnam: Strengthening the Regulatory, Institutional and Funding Frameworks
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    Vietnam has a long history of using its rivers and canals for transportation of goods and people. Today, Vietnam’s waterways transport about 17 percent of all domestic goods tonage loaded in Vietnam and perform nearly 19 percent of all traffic tasks, a measure which combines both tonnes loaded and distance carried. These are very high levels by international standards, and Vietnam’s national freight task proportion is more than double that for China, the United States, and the European Union where inland waterways are also prevalent. Right after its integration into the international economic community in the late 1980s, Vietnam listed the development of inland waterways transport as one of its priorities to boost economic growth. Overcoming financing constraints, the country has made enormous strides in developing its inland waterways transport by efficiently exploiting the natural conditions of its rivers and canals. However, exploiting only the natural conditions of Vietnam’s inland waterways could diminish the country’s competitive advantage over time. In order to bring the waterways’ great potential into reality, further investment is required in the institutional structure, in strengthening the legal and regulatory framework, and in improvement of the funding framework for the sector. This report provides a comprehensive review and assessment of the challenges that the sector faces, along with a reform program recommended to the government of Vietnam that could help improve the enabling environment for the inland waterways transport industry and further its growth and technical sophistication.
  • Publication
    Identification of Business Models to Accelerate E-Bus Introduction in Uruguay
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    This report is the product of the technical assistance to develop a business model to finance and scale up e-mobility in Uruguay provided by the World Bank and funded by the Mobility and Logistics (MOLO) Trust Fund. The report systematically analyzes international experiences and synthesizes them as stylized business models. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. The Uruguayan experience in terms of e-bus deployment since 2019 has shown to be effective based on an integrated assets model (Bus service providers (BSPs) own chassis, batteries, and charging stations), financed through a combination of a fleet renewal trust fund from the Municipality of Montevideo and an investment subsidy from the Government of Uruguay. Beyond the public investment subsidy, the Municipality of Montevideo trust fund for fleet renewal has managed to get financing and guarantees at a moderate interest rate, helping to mitigate the high investment cost of e-buses.