Items in this collection
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank GroupIn a rapidly urbanising world, Malawi remains one of the least urbanised countries in Africa. Approximately 16.7 percent of Malawi's population live in urban areas. Nevertheless, the country is urbanising at a moderate rate of approximately 3.7–3.9 percent per year. If growth continues at this rate, by 2030, approximately 20 percent of the population will be city dwellers, reaching 30 percent in 2050. This urban growth has the potential to improve economic opportunities and living conditions across Malawi. This is particularly significant given that approximately 69 percent of the population are living under the international poverty line of 1.9 US Dollars/day in purchasing power parity terms. However, challenges are also associated with this shift and concentration of population. With urbanisation comes a substantial amount of new construction. In Malawi, much of this new construction has occurred in cities and towns with limited capacity to ensure the structures in which people live, work and gather are safely sited and built to withstand chronic stresses (i.e. fire and spontaneous collapse) and disaster shocks (i.e. earthquakes and floods). In Lilongwe, for example, estimates indicate that 76 percent of residents live in informal settlements. These settlements are generally characterised by a lack of access to publicservices, tenure insecurity and inadequate housing. Malawi is impacted by a wide range of hazards, particularly droughts, floods, landslides, wildfires and earthquakes. Malawi is also vulnerable to recurrent and chronic risks. Large building fires in recent years include the LL and Mchinji Markets and the Mulanje Bus Depot in 2016 and the Area 13 and Zomba Market in 2018. In many ways, Malawi is at a crossroads: the regulatory decisions made now will significantly impact the longterm safety, productivity and resilience of the built environment in rural and urban areas. With its low base and moderate rate of urbanisation, Malawi is wellpositioned to formulate plans to maximise the benefits and to manage the challenges of urban agglomeration.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019) World Bank GroupThere is clear evidence on the need for cities to rapidly scale-up their investments in climate change mitigation programs and build strong foundations for climate-resilient communities. Investing in low carbon infrastructure and climate resilience can generate competitive returns and is crucial for preventing a reversal of the development gains made in low-income countries up until now. Overcoming the barriers in financing climate-smart infrastructure in cities means adjusting their currently unattractive and inadequate risk-return investment profile. Our analysis explains that well-targeted concessional funding can derisk the financing structure of a project and turn a typical non-bankable project to financial viable one. Additionally, it makes the case for results-based blended finance approaches that strengthen the accountability in project development by linking financing to the achievement of measurable, pre-agreed results. Addressing the lack of creditworthiness, the limited accountability and capacity in institutions and service delivery practices should be at the center of urban investment strategies. The report highlights the need for technical assistance and capacity building programs that will support cities bring order to their financing and accounting practices, support shadow credit ratings and help them become creditworthy. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the 500 largest cities in developing countries are considered creditworthy. Cities and development partners face a common challenge: Making the most effective use of available public finance instruments and disburse scarce public (concessional) funds in a way that maximally leverages private sector co-investments.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-29) World Bank GroupWater supply and sanitation (WSS) utilities are expected to become increasingly susceptible to the expected impacts of climate change. WSS utility planners and engineers have dealt with natural climate variances and disaster planning as part of the design process for many years. However, the traditional methods for these plans have not considered the deep uncertainty surrounding many future conditions, which are further exacerbated by climate change. To help utilities incorporate resilience and robustness in their choices, this road map proposes a process in three phases that can inform the design of strategies necessary to WSS services provision. The road map builds on the understanding that climate change is most often an amplifier of existing uncertainties (many of which are threats), and, as such, should not be evaluated as a stand-alone impact. The approach reveals the strengths and vulnerabilities of investment plans concisely and helps utilities invest robustly by identifying near-term, no-regret projects that can be undertaken now, while maintaining flexibility in pursuing additional actions adaptively as future conditions evolve. These results can be achieved both with a qualitative exploration and a quantitative assessment, depending on the context and the resources available.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2014-08) World Bank GroupThe report presents the results of a detailed vulnerability assessment and summarizes the prioritization methodology developed to guide investment decisions on the strengthening of critical assets in Metropolitan Manila. With support from the World Bank, the engagement on Safe and Resilient Infrastructure has carried out a preliminary structural assessment of over seven hundred public school campuses and twenty hospitals retained by the Department of Health in Metro Manila. The report also highlights the lessons learned from seismic retrofitting programs implemented throughout the world, as showcased during the Forum on Safe and Resilient Infrastructure that took place in Manila, Philippines, in October 2013. This report is divided into three sections. First, it establishes the technical principles of earthquake risk management. Second, it details the experience of the Philippines to date in developing an integrated earthquake risk management program, focusing on the methodology and results of a vulnerability assessment and prioritization conducted under the Safe and Resilient Infrastructure Program. Last, it reviews international experience with earthquake risk management programs of various scales and scopes, through the cases of California, Romania, Turkey, and Indonesia. The key messages of the report are as follows: An integrated approach to earthquake risk management can strengthen key buildings and infrastructure and reduce the damaging effects of future disasters in the Philippines. Earthquake risk management and strengthening programs initiated by both the public and private sectors in many countries often consist of three phases: risk audit, risk assessment, and implementation. Several key technical components must be considered in the design of a phased earthquake risk management program, including a prioritization methodology.