Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Navigating Beyond COVID-19: Airline Recovery and Regulatory Reform Opportunities in Southern Africa
    (Washington, DC, 2022-09) World Bank
    This policy paper explores airline restructuring and regulatory reform challenges and opportunities in the Southern African region with particular focus on Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the air transport sector in the region faced multipronged challenges, including those related to economic regulation, profitability, safety, security, and sustainable financing of critical infrastructure. Much like the rest of Africa, the region is characterized by the dominance of troubled state-owned airlines which have been unable to generate meaningful positive returns for many years due to structural inefficiencies and weak governance. They faced elevated costs and needed several bailouts and turnaround strategies, albeit unsuccessful.
  • Publication
    Transport and Logistics: Myanmar Infrastructure Monitoring
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World Bank
    Transport and logistics services in Myanmar have been substantially hit by the impacts of the February 2021 coup and the surge in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Logistics companies have been affected by rising fuel prices, border closures, and a shortage of shipping containers. While the initial effects after the military coup on the transport sector were extremely severe, there have been signs of some recovery of transport services since May 2021. Public transport in Yangon experienced a significant reduction in passenger demand in early months after the coup, subsequently recovering some ground by December 2021. Higher fuel prices and currency liquidity shortages significantly increased the cost of inland transport services. Transportation and logistics services are expected to be severely impacted by continuing high fuel prices, mobility constrains, political instability, and evolution of the pandemic. The export and import via container are expected to recover gradually due to agricultural and garment industry-led demand. However, improvement of exports and imports in the medium term is uncertain given the complexity of trade relations with international trade partners. In addition to effects of the coup and political conflicts, risks related to the pandemic will also significantly impact logistics supply chains and mobility in the near to mid-term.
  • Publication
    Air Transport: Annual Report 2021
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    Air transport plays an important role in fostering development, particularly in facilitating economic integration, generating trade, promoting tourism, and creating employment opportunities. It facilitates integration into the global economy and provides vital connectivity on a national, regional, and international scale. However, in many countries, air transport equipment and infrastructure, regulat ory frameworks, and safety and security oversight systems are inefficient or inadequate. In view of these challenges and to assist clients in establishing a safe, secure, cost-efficient, accessible and reliable air transport network, the Bank is mandated to undertake the following major activities: (i) Operational work through projects and technical assistance; (ii) Economic sector work, research, and knowledge dissemination on air transport related issues; (iii) External relations and collaboration with partner organizations and (iv) External relations and collaboration with partner organizations. This report focuses on Air transport portfolio and project highlights for the year 2021.
  • Publication
    Vulnerability to Human Trafficking in Nepal from Enhanced Regional Connectivity
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12) World Bank
    Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. It is a form of modern-day slavery that involves the recruitment, harboring, or transportation of people into an exploitative situation by means of violence, deception, or coercion for the purpose of exploitation. In Nepal, the most widespread forms of human trafficking are for forced labor, domestic servitude, prostitution and sexual exploitation, and organ extraction. The country’s open borders with India, and to some extent China, with limited border surveillance, have enabled transnational crimes such as human trafficking. The World Bank has extended technical and financial assistance to large-scale infrastructure projects in Nepal, some for improved transport connectivity and trade facilitation both within the country and within the region. The nature of these investments must be looked at through the lens of enhancing long-term economic growth and prosperity, which is jeopardized by human trafficking. As a result, this study was conducted to draw links between the various aspects of development projects, in particular, improved transport connectivity and migration, that either contribute, mitigate, facilitate, or prevent trafficking in men, women, and children.
  • Publication
    Steering Towards Cleaner Air: Measures to Mitigate Transport Air Pollution in Addis Ababa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Grutter, Jurg; Jia, Wenyu; Xie, Jian
    Air pollution, exacerbated by urbanization and motorization, is a growing concern in Addis Ababa and many other SSA cities. In Addis Ababa, air pollution from the urban transport sector is attributable to rapid motorization, an aging vehicle fleet, high sulfur fuels, lack of emission standards, and inadequate vehicle inspection and enforcement, calling for a shift towards integrated transport and air quality management. The report is one of the deliverables of the World Bank’s Advisory Services & Analytics program entitled “Ethiopia: Air Quality Management and Urban Mobility.” It aims to assess mitigation options for transport emissions for Addis Ababa (AA) in the Ethiopian context and recommend priority measures for short- and mid-term actions. The formulation of potential mitigation options builds upon a review of relevant development strategies and ongoing initiatives of the Federal and AA governments and development partners, the Ethiopian and international experiences, the results of Addis Ababa’s source apportionment study including vehicle emission inventory conducted for this ASA, and consultations with relevant stakeholders. A set of transport air pollution mitigation measures are assessed, prioritized and recommended for Addis Ababa.
  • Publication
    Climate Change Risk Analysis of Argentina’s Land Transport Network
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Kesete, Yohannes Y.; Raffo, Veronica; Pant, Raghav; Koks, Elco E.; Paltan, Homero; Russell, Tom; Hall, Jim W.
    Argentina’s vast networks of national, provincial, and rural roads, spanning more than 240,000 kilometers, are critical for the country’s growth and development. However, climate change–induced hydrological extremes often disrupt road travel and raise logistics costs. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change induced flood risk on the transport network in Argentina. The study analyzes both current and future flooding scenarios, examines the resulting disruptions in the transport network, and estimates the direct and indirect macroeconomic losses. The study uses a system-of-systems approach, where network models are developed to suitably represent the transport system as nodes and links. For each node and link, the study analyzes criticality, vulnerability, and risk, and provides adaptation strategies. This paper is organized into four sections. Following the methodology and approach laid out in Section 2, the analysis and results are detailed in Section 3,Conclusions and policy recommendations are presented in Section 4.
  • Publication
    Socio-Economic Costs and Human Impacts of Road Accidents in Azerbaijan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    Road accidents represent a growing worldwide problem. According to the official statistics, 696 people died and 1,410 were seriously injured in road crashes in Azerbaijan in 2020. The launch of the state road safety program for 2019 - 2023 is an important step towards improving road safety in Azerbaijan. By adopting the program in 2018 the Government of Azerbaijan committed itself to substantially improving road safety. The strategic program aims to improve Azerbaijan’s road safety performance and to reduce the number of road crashes and casualties. The state road safety program explicitly states that in addition to reducing the number of accidents and casualties, decreasing the socio-economic costs that result from road crashes is one of its aims. The lack of information on the socio-economic costs of road crashes is an important knowledge and capacity gap for handling road safety problems in Azerbaijan. The aim of the study is to assess the national socio-economic costs and the impact of road accidents on poverty, shared prosperity, and vulnerable groups. Concerning the socio-economic costs, all relevant cost items are included and quantified to the extent possible, following international standards and best practices. The report is structured as follows: chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two presents the methodology for the assessment of the socio-economic costs and poverty impacts of road crashes in Azerbaijan, as well as the data collection methods, including a survey among road casualties. Chapter three presents the assessment of the socio-economic costs of road crashes and chapter four - of the human and poverty impacts. Chapter five discusses policy implications of study results for policy making and presents key recommendations.
  • Publication
    Flood-Resilient Mass Transit Planning in Ouagadougou
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    Ouagadougou, the largest city in Burkina Faso, is growing rapidly, with the annual rate reaching 9 percent by some estimates, and with commensurate challenges for ensuring efficient mobility for its residents. Like many urban areas in Sahelian West Africa, Ouagadougou is also highly vulnerable to extreme hydro-meteorological events. In the context of the plans to develop an efficient, bus-based mass transit system in Ouagadougou in the medium term, the study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution and severity of flood risk affecting the planned system; and to identify, evaluate, and prioritize interventions that will increase its resilience. The study focuses on a pilot sector of 67 km, covering a large part of central Ouagadougou and its strategic infrastructures, at the intersection of the future planned mass transit system and the areas of the city a priori considered more flood prone (for example, near the major dams). By working with a local drone operator and an international flood modelling firm, the study constructed high spatial resolution digital elevation and digital terrain models for the area of interest (AOI), which served as inputs for developing a hydrological model. To further classify the road and future mass transit sections in order to prioritize interventions, the analysis applied the criteria of an area priority score and a flood criticality score, which together combine into an overall impact score. The importance of good planning and policy and regulatory actions vis-a-vis more structural engineering solutions is underlined by the fact that the top two measures singled out by the multicriteria analysis are so-called soft solutions - related to the maintenance and cleaning of the flood-related structures and the reinforcement of the waste collection system.
  • Publication
    Road Safety Management Capacity Assessment for Vanuatu
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-01) World Bank
    This Road Safety Management Capacity Assessment (RSMCA) seeks to gain a broad understanding of the Government of Vanuatu's road safety management capacity to support its plans to improve road safety outcomes throughout the country. The RSMCA follows the seven critical road safety institutional management functions (Bliss and Breen 2013) to identify key challenges and provide recommendations for improvement in road safety management, and similarly addresses the Safe System pillars for the interventions level. The seven institutional management functions include: results focus, coordination, legislation, finance and resource allocation, promotion and advocacy, monitoring and evaluation, and research and development of knowledge transfer. The Safe System pillars include road safety management, safe roads and mobility, safe vehicles, safe road users, post-crash care, and safe speeds. The RSMCA’s alignment with both the road safety institutional management functions and the Safe System Approach in turn aims to help the Government of Vanuatu to prioritize targeted next steps to address road crash death and serious injury in the country.
  • Publication
    Reforming and Rebuilding Lebanon’s Port Sector Part II: Policies and Solutions for Digitalizing the Port of Beirut
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    The resilience of the Lebanese port sector has proven to be low. The impact of the ongoing economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Port of Beirut (PoB) explosion has traumatized the sector and exposed its weaknesses and inabilities to predict, identify, and respond to external risks. Anticipated slow recovery is expected to intensify the burden on the economy while opportunity costs are high given the recent port developments in the Eastern Mediterranean region and globally. Digitalization is one of key foundational stones for reconstruction. The “Reforming and RebuildingLebanon’s Port Sector “ note that the World Bank published in January 2020 highlights that there is a unique opportunity for rebuilding better the PoB and recommends a roadmap around four key building blocks: i) a new governance structure based on the landlord port model; ii) efficient and modern trade compliance procedures; iii) open and transparent bidding processes for selecting investors, operators, or concessionaires; and iv) quality infrastructure contingent on a national port strategy and a revised PoB masterplan.