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PublicationLAC Digital Economy Country Diagnostic: Ecuador(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-12) World BankEcuador has made significant progress on the adoption of digital technologies over the past decade. Despite these advances, millions of Ecuadorians, particularly those in rural areas, continue to be excluded from the digital economy because of affordability constraints, uneven infrastructure, and gaps in digital skills. Accelerating the adoption of digital technologies and addressing inequities in digital access can help Ecuador achieve its development goals. This report provides recommendations to support the effective implementation of Ecuador’s Digital Transformation Agenda 2022–2025. Universal internet access and digital transformation can help the country promote productivity and competitiveness in the non-extractive sectors, foster sustainable growth, create better jobs, and bridge inequalities, particularly the urban-rural divide as concerns the indigenous populations. The government’s commitment to digital transformation to address its development challenges is evident in the newly passed agenda, which includes digital infrastructure as axis number one. This report provides Ecuadorian authorities with recommendations for implementing the agenda across six pillars: digital infrastructure, digital public platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and the trust environment. Key recommendations include legal and regulatory reforms to address affordability barriers to internet access, foster fintech and e-commerce ecosystems, and enhance cybersecurity. Ecuador’s digital transformation will also require investments in fixed and mobile infrastructure and international bandwidth, as well as in digital public platforms, to improve user experience and interoperability. Guiding student progress in digital skills from primary to higher education and digitizing government payments are also key reform areas. PublicationIdentification for Development (ID4D): Diagnostic of ID Systems in Cameroon(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-23) World BankAn estimated 7.5 million Cameroonians—about one in three people in the country—do not have an official proof of identity such as a birth certificate or national ID card. More than one in three children have not had their birth registered and more than half do not have a birth certificate. An estimated 2.5 million adults do not have a national ID. In addition to being the objective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Target 16.9— to “provide legal identity for all, including birth registration” by 2030—identification is a key enabler for individuals to exercise their rights and for progress towards many other SDG targets, such as financial and economic inclusion, social protection, gender equality, and safe and orderly migration. Women, people in rural areas, young people aged 18-24, people among the poorest 40 percent of the population, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) disproportionately suffer due to the lack of identity documents. Those without a birth certificate or a national ID are often unable to access basic services and economic opportunities, such as education, social assistance, financial services, or formal employment in. PublicationIntegrating Resilience into Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Kenya: Guidance Note for Municipal and County Engineer and Planners - Urban Resilient Infrastructure Guideline(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World BankThis Resilient Urban Infrastructure Guidelines forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 2. This guidance note provides simple guidance for increasing the resilience of municipal infrastructure projects, and of communities, to physical risks, notably impacts of climate changes. This will increase the sustainability of investments under Second Kenya Urban Support Program (KUSP2), enabling them to perform their required function for their proposed design life, in a changing climate. It follows, roughly chronologically, the project development and design process. For the purposes of this note, resilient urban infrastructure is defined as infrastructure that is designed to deliver essential services now and in the future. It is prepared for and can withstand, adapt and recover positively from the physical (and climatic) shocks and stresses it may face over its lifetime. This is both with regards to the assets themselves, as well as the wider system that these assets are part of, which could include: the natural environment, the urban system, the operators, and the communities that interact with them. PublicationEnhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya - Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World BankThis ‘Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning’ forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 7. Aimed at municipal-level planners in Kenya, this guidance note includes activities, considerations, and examples of good practice from within Kenya and other contexts to support municipal governments with mainstreaming resilience within the urban planning system. While the primary audience is municipal-level urban planners, this guidance note is likely to be helpful and relevant to other planning system stakeholders, including developers, local politicians, government ministries, departments and agencies, community leaders, other built environmental professionals, and the general public. Throughout, the Guidance Note focusses on mainstreaming resilience. In other words, this document is not, and should not be used as, a general ‘how-to’ guide for urban planning. While some advice is provided within it that may be more applicable beyond the topic of resilience and/or comprises basic good practice in urban planning, that text is nevertheless included as a means to build resilience as a primary outcome. PublicationClimate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Compendium Volume: A Focus on Infrastructure Project Design in Key Sectors(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World BankThis Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume. PublicationDigital Economy for Latin America and the Caribbean - Country Diagnostic: Colombia(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-21) World BankThis report analyzes the current state of, challenges to, and opportunities for the development of a digital economy and proposes six policy priorities for the Government of Colombia (GoC). The report is based on the World Bank’s Digital Economy Assessment methodology, which analyzes the digital economy across six pillars or foundational elements: digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and trust environment. PublicationBuilding Regulations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Status Review of the Building Regulatory Environment(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-20) World Bank; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and RecoveryBuildings should provide safe, comfortable, and healthy environments for people to live and work. They are an essential component of societies and economies, housing critical infrastructure necessary to keep governments and businesses in operation. At the same time, buildings are the first line of defense against natural hazards and climate impacts for the general population. The scope of this report is limited to regulatory frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, with a focus on buildings rather than on specialized construction types such as infrastructure for water, energy, transport, or communications. The report focuses on the technical aspects of the regulatory frameworks: market and financial solutions fall beyond its scope. Chapter 1 of the report describes the components, concepts, and desired outcomes of building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 2 explains the evolution of the building regulation environment in Sub-Saharan Africa and the region-specific hazards and risks that the regulatory environment must respond to. Chapter 3 presents data on the building regulatory environment for each country in the region. It covers all aspects of the building regulatory cycle: from the legally adopted building regulations that exist, to what they cover, to the implementation of regulations through compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Chapter 4 offers guidance on how to improve and update building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 5 contains region-specific conclusions and recommendations for strengthening building regulatory frameworks because of the analyses carried out in Chapters 3 and 4. Additionally, Appendix A summarizes key data for each country. PublicationManaging the Fiscal Implications of Public-Private Partnerships in a Sustainable and Resilient Manner: A Compendium of Good Practices and Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic(Washington, DC, 2023-03-22) World BankPublic-private partnerships (PPPs) can sometimes be perceived as a means for delivering infrastructure for free. A more nuanced but still inexact view is that they are a mechanism to overcome fiscal constraints. Some argue, perhaps rightly, that often governments enter PPP contracts without fully understanding their fiscal implications. These misconceptions lead to several challenges. There is evidence that fiscal sustainability is often overlooked or ignored by countries with PPP programs, with long-term fiscal implications the governments did not understand or manage well. Governments also struggle with perceptions that they are not fully transparent about the real, ultimate costs of PPP projects. This report aims to illustrate how to improve fiscal risk management and treatment of fiscal commitments and contingent liabilities (FCCL) arising from PPP projects, to build better Infrastructure post-COVID-19. It intends to be a resource for World Bank client countries, including low income and fragile economies, to design their fiscal PPP management frameworks in a viable way that helps them develop their PPP programs while maintaining medium-to-long-term fiscal sustainability and resilience. With that in mind, Volume I highlights and contextualizes the main findings from a set of case studies that assessed the PPP fiscal risk management framework in select countries, and synthesizes the observable and qualitative results in managing the impact of crises, in particular the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on that, it also explores how this crisis has affected PPP projects and overall PPP programs, and suggests improvements to FCCL management frameworks in order to strengthen the capacity of countries to continue with their PPP programs in a sustainable fiscal manner. Volume II contains the detailed case studies on which Volume I is based. PublicationInfrastructure Tokenization: Does Blockchain Have a Role in the Financing of Infrastructure?(World Bank, Washington DC, 2023-03-22) World Bank GroupThe purpose of this report is to assess whether digitizing the equity or debt financing used for infrastructure projects using blockchain, that is, tokenized infrastructure, provides enough benefits to justify the use of this technology. The information presented here aims to inform the World Bank whether it should explore the possibility of tokenizing one of its infrastructure projects. The conclusions are based on interviews with tokenization start-ups, experts, and the review of current and planned regulatory frameworks in selected jurisdictions and use cases/pilots to date. PublicationPublic-Private Partnership (PPP) Contracts in An Age of Disruption(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-09) World Bank GroupThe objective of this report is to help governments of emerging economies to better understand the increasing impact of disruptive technologies on PPP infrastructure projects. The report also seeks to provide guidance on how to manage existing PPP contracts and design future ones at a time when emerging technologies areproviding opportunities for innovation, and new business models can be essential for economic growth and private sector development in emerging markets. In addition, the report intends to encourage further debate among stakeholders involved in PPP projects about the scope and type of technological disruption they have encountered, as well as approaches to manage associated risks and to encourage innovation.