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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Megevand, Carole ; Dulal, Hari ; Braune, Loic ; Wekhamp, JohannaThe Congo Basin is among the most poorly served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that require construction of numerous bridges. Given such complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for the Congo Basin countries. Recent studies indicate that investment required per kilometer of new roads is substantially higher than in other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the same applies for maintenance. The physical capital of transport infrastructure is deteriorated in the Congo Basin. The ratio of classify roads in good and fair conditions range from 25 percent in Republic of Congo to 68 percent in the Central African Republic, which is globally lower than the average for low-income countries (LICs) and resource-rich countries. Other transportation assets (railways and river system) are also limited: the railway network is essentially a legacy of the colonial era and mainly used for mineral transportation, while the river system is basically only marginal.
Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Insights for REDD+ Initiatives(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012) PROFORAs donors pledge growing support for protecting and managing forests to address climate change, the question of how to pay tropical countries to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation assumes greater urgency. Depending on the detailed implementation of REDD plus at a national and international level, forest nations may be able to secure funding from a range of sources, including donors and multilateral funds (a funded approach) and the voluntary and compliance carbon markets (a carbon markets-based approach). These payments are supposed to act as financial incentives that will engender changes in behavior and policy frameworks, spur the development of appropriate institutional arrangements and needed technologies, and motivate both national and international coordination to achieve REDD plus objectives. These pages provide a brief synthesis of four papers financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). All four papers are included in a CD enclosed at the end of this booklet. The papers are: making benefit sharing arrangements work for forest-dependent people: overview of insights for REDD plus Initiative (Chandrasekharan Behr, 2012); identifying and working with beneficiaries when rights are unclear (Bruce, 2012); assessing options for effective mechanisms to share benefits (PwC, 2012); and benefit sharing in practice.