Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways Transport in Vietnam: Strengthening the Regulatory, Institutional and Funding Frameworks
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    Vietnam has a long history of using its rivers and canals for transportation of goods and people. Today, Vietnam’s waterways transport about 17 percent of all domestic goods tonage loaded in Vietnam and perform nearly 19 percent of all traffic tasks, a measure which combines both tonnes loaded and distance carried. These are very high levels by international standards, and Vietnam’s national freight task proportion is more than double that for China, the United States, and the European Union where inland waterways are also prevalent. Right after its integration into the international economic community in the late 1980s, Vietnam listed the development of inland waterways transport as one of its priorities to boost economic growth. Overcoming financing constraints, the country has made enormous strides in developing its inland waterways transport by efficiently exploiting the natural conditions of its rivers and canals. However, exploiting only the natural conditions of Vietnam’s inland waterways could diminish the country’s competitive advantage over time. In order to bring the waterways’ great potential into reality, further investment is required in the institutional structure, in strengthening the legal and regulatory framework, and in improvement of the funding framework for the sector. This report provides a comprehensive review and assessment of the challenges that the sector faces, along with a reform program recommended to the government of Vietnam that could help improve the enabling environment for the inland waterways transport industry and further its growth and technical sophistication.
  • Publication
    Seismic Risk
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    The importance of ensuring that dam structures can withstand earthquakes has been recognized and practiced for many years. The technical capability of the dam engineering industry in the seismic design of dam structures has increased considerably since the 1980-1990s. Dams designed using modern seismic engineering principles that are well constructed have performed well during earthquakes, with only modest damage. Older dams that have suffered damage from earthquakes are likely to have been subjected to poor construction or maintenance, or they lack modern defensive design measures to prevent failure. Seismic hazard varies around the world. Some countries experience major earthquakes frequently, whereas other countries have hardly ever experienced one. This technical note contains the minimum level of technical detail for seismic design of new structures and seismic assessment of existing structures, so that non-specialists can use it. The key objective is to provide guidance for addressing seismic aspects of dam projects early on in project preparation. The note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation. The material presented should be used to assess the required level of seismic hazard assessment, review the adequacy of the dam’s seismic design and resilience measures, and recommend required expertise for quality assurance of projects involving dams in seismic areas.
  • Publication
    Hydrological Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note contains a level of technical detail that non-specialists can use for guidance in addressing the hydrological aspects of dam projects early in the project preparation. It is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation and implementation. The material presented should be used to prepare terms of reference on such studies and to assess the adequacy of methodology proposed by consultants in response to tenders for advisory services. It is recommended that, reading the Note, the client and the World Bank project teams will assess the required level of hydrological expertise in the teams. The hydrological subjects this Note covers are typical in World Bank–supported operations. There are several other subjects pertaining to hydrology that it does not cover. Enlarging the scope to those subjects will defeat the objective and turn the Note into a handbook on the vast discipline of hydrology. The same selective effort has been applied in choosing the references that the reader can consult to focus on specific subjects. For that reason, the list has been limited to essential references that provide general guidance on required hydrology studies, whereas the additional sources complement the general guidance with references dealing with specific aspects of the project hydrology.
  • Publication
    Tailings Storage Facilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are engineered structures that comprise the confining embankments (commonly referred to as tailings dams) and associated works and are designed to contain tailings (residue following extraction of valuable material from metal ore processing) and to manage associated water. TSF contains mixed waste material from mining processes in liquid or slurry form and must be responsibly managed to prevent impacts on human health and safety, the environment, and other infrastructure. However, TSFs have historically suffered more problems than water storage dams. Internationally, TSFs have a historical long-term average of more than one major incident or failure per year. To manage mining facilities responsibly, the TSF owner must understand the physical and chemical risks associated with the TSF and implement controls to reduce risks relating to potential health, safety, environmental, societal, business, and economic impacts in line with regulations. International organizations, regulators and industries have developed guidelines to aid owners in the management of TSFs. These guidelines were used to develop this Technical Note. The Note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies/investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation.
  • Publication
    Portfolio Risk Assessment Using Risk Index
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note provides detailed information on the Brazilian risk classification system using the RI approach and the Indian RI system for the initial risk screening of a large portfolio of existing dams. Annex A provides basic information about the RI approach used in Quebec, Canada, for its dam classification system. These RIs are used for prioritization of required remedial works and other safety requirements. It should be noted, however, that RI is also a basic tool for preliminary level risk analyses for portfolios of dams and initial screening of risky dams, which may need to be supplemented by more advanced methods, depending on the type and potential risk of the dams. Because RI largely relies on visual inspection of the dams’ conditions, some critical failure modes could be missed. underestimated, or overestimated. In the higher risk cases, or whenever deemed appropriate, more detailed risk analyses, such as potential failure mode analysis (PFMA), can fill some of the gaps.
  • Publication
    Geotechnical Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note is prepared to provide guidance to the World Bank task teams and clients regarding geological and geotechnical issues and recommended risk mitigation and management measures. The investigation, design, and construction of dams should identify and consider all potential hazards and threats to dam safety while being cognizant of the associated consequences of dam failure.
  • Publication
    Potential Failure Mode Analysis
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Potential failure modes analysis (PFMA) is a process to systematically identify, describe, and evaluate the ways in which a dam and its appurtenant structures could fail under postulated loading conditions. Since 2002, PFMA has been introduced as part of five-year inspections under the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulations for nonfederal hydropower dams in the United States. The PFMA is intended to provide an understanding of how and why dams fail by looking at how dams behave normally, learning to identify early signs that something is wrong, understanding the hazards and risks imposed by the dam, and being prepared for the unexpected behavior that leads to failure. The World Bank has assisted some countries in applying the PFMA for safety review of major existing dams and found that the tool is useful in prioritizing additional investigations needs and remedial works in coordination with key stakeholders, including owners, operators, and designers. This Technical Note contains guidance for preparing PFMA terms of reference for: (a) the FERC-based standard approach to PFMA; and (b) a simplified PFMA approach.
  • Publication
    Good Practice Note on Dam Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) World Bank
    The objective of this good practice note (GPN) on dam safety is to provide additional guidance to World Bank staff on the application of relevant requirements under the environmental and social framework (ESF). This GPN provides guidance on using a risk management approach to the application of the dam safety requirements. The guidance contained in this note is designed to enhance the quality of practice without creating new requirements for the application of the ESF. The GPN provides guidance on compliance requirements, a risk management approach to dam safety, risk analysis tools, quality of information and capacity, application to World Bank operations, and procedural aspects. The GPN pertains to: (a) construction of new dams or dams under construction (DUC) under investment project financing (IPF); (b) rehabilitation of existing dams under IPF; and (c) existing dams or DUC that are not financed under IPF, on which the project relies or may rely.
  • Publication
    Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World Bank
    The development of Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of the operation, maintenance, surveillance and emergency preparedness programs adopted by dam authorities. Matrices were developed for dam owners and operators to assess the effectiveness of dam safety programs against in-country standards and guidelines, or, good industry practice as considered most appropriate. The matrices were developed through an iterative and consultative process that included a detailed review of the legal hierarchy, specific dam safety regulations and technical guidelines, the roles and responsibilities of the different institutions involved, followed by expert review and verification. The primary benefit of using dam safety-related Maturity Matrices is to improve the understanding of dam safety programs across a range of different metrics. This allows owners and operators to monitor performance over time and inform the prioritization of resources for dam operation, maintenance and safety improvement. The matrices also allow regulatory bodies to assess performance across different owners and operators, and contrast the effectiveness across dam management units to identify systemic issues and target interventions and remedies accordingly.
  • Publication
    Energy-Water Nexus in Southern Africa: Background Paper to Support Dialogue in the Region
    (Washington, DC, 2016-06-30) World Bank
    The objective of this paper is to provide high-level background information on the interdependency between the supply of electricity and water in Southern Africa. The paper assimilates information based an extensive review of recent work on the energy and watersectors in the region and beyond, and the World Bank’s sector dialogue in the region. The paper is intended to help facilitate a dialogue on the energy-water nexus in the region, especially fromthe perspective of electricity sector planning, and help the World Bank engage key sectorstakeholders on the issue.The value of this paper is in bringing together the latest knowledge work and other key information relevant for energy-water nexus dialogue in Southern Africa. This information has been derived from a number of fragmented sources, and an effort has been made to present the information in a logical framework, in one document that can help initiate discussions in the region.This paper was conceptualized as a background discussion paper and does not seek to make any recommendations on policy alternatives to tackle challenges facing the region on energy-water nexus issues. Any recommendations should be rooted in a thorough assessment of the specificchallenges, institutions and objectives of the region; and most importantly should follow from aconstructive regional dialogue amongst key stakeholders.The issues and implications that surround the energy-water nexus are numerous. The use of electricity and water as critical inputs to economic activity, implies that there are many interlinkages that can be explored. To increase the usefulness of the information and the framework presented, this paper focuses on the perspective of electricity supply, and highlights nexus issues that are directly relevant to it. Important related nexus issues such as agriculture and its dependence on reliable water and electricity (the energy-water-food nexus) are not considered and are left for future work. Thus, in referring to the energy–water nexus, the paper considers issues on electricity and water sectors in relation to electricity supply and long-term planning around it, including the feedback loop to water. By highlighting key analytical work and drawing insights relevant to Southern Africa, this paper aims to support an informed regional dialogue on decision making about the energy–water nexus in the region.