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PublicationReforming the Indian Ports Sector(Washington, DC, 2013-06) World BankMaritime transport carries more than nine-tenths of tonnage of world international trade. The international shipping industry, competitive and dominated by private companies, has delivered to trading nations increasing capacity, generally improving service levels, and declining unit shipping costs. To access and extract the maximum benefit from this vital transport resource each nation depends on the performance of its ports sector; not only on the capacity, quality and price of port services but also their connectivity to hinterlands and to the industrial and consumer markets they serve. Ports in India, as in many countries, face continued pressure to handle higher throughput, adapt to larger and more specialized vessels, improve productivity, and adopt new technology and information systems that can meet the increasingly demanding service standards expected by shippers, logistics companies and shipping operators. As in all economic sectors, the success of ports depends not only on investment in its infrastructure but on supportive policy and regulatory structures, and on the effectiveness of the institutions that deliver services to customers. This Report contains an analysis of the current status of India s ports sector, identifies potential constraints on the ability of ports to meet India s future development needs, and sets out a recommended policy framework to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the sector. PublicationRegulation of the Indian Port Sector(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-05) van Krimpen, ChristiaanThis report sets out various options for regulatory reform of the Indian port sector. The terms of reference from The World Bank require the Author making recommendations to the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs) with respect to alternative institutional and legal options for regulation of the port sector in India as well as analysing key considerations in the regulation of this sector and the way they are being addressed in the Indian Ports (Consolidated) Act, 2010, which has been drafted recently. This report is solution-oriented and focuses on day-to-day problems of Indian port management. The problems of the Indian ports (including those of tariff regulation by TAMP) are well known, thoroughly analysed, described in detail and widely discussed in the port sector. A final solution for the restructuring of the sector has not yet been found. This report is written with a view to outlining various alternatives which may help the competent authorities to make final decisions on a new/revised port sector regulatory framework. PublicationIndia : Road Transport Service Efficiency Study(Washington, DC, 2005-11) World BankThis study reviews the long-distance road transport industry in India, in order to identify inefficiencies that could reduce the benefits to be derived from the large investments now being made by the Government in the nation's highway infrastructure. It has been undertaken to assess the present policy regime, and identify measures which may be considered to improve the functioning of road transport, in particular long-distance road transport, and, enhance its already enormous contribution (3.9 percent of GDP) to the workings of the Indian economy. While the road transport sector encompasses a wide variety of activities, this study has focused on three aspects which were considered the most relevant to the investments in highway infrastructure - the trucking industry, inter-city buses, and in view of its very important, but largely unfulfilled role in enhancing road safety, the motor insurance industry. The key findings and recommendations of the study are summarized below. India has achieved a highly competitive, low-cost road freight transport industry for basic services, with highway freight rates among the lowest in the world. In fact, trucking freight rates are so low that the industry is suffering an intense period of low profits, or rather, even losses. In this context, actions by the Government that increase costs, or reduce the efficiency of operators, will soon find their way into higher freight rates. Introduction of tractor-trailer, multi-axle vehicles would reduce not only transport costs, but also road damage caused by the higher axle-loadings of 2- and 3-axle rigid trucks, and, incentives proposed for introduction of multi-axle trucks include reduced tax and highway toll rates. Regarding inter-city bus services, the private sector has won back a rapidly increasing share of the inter-city road passenger market, and now about 80 percent of the bus fleet is privately operated. The report stipulates the appropriate focus of regulatory policy, in the case of road passenger transport, should be qualitative standards related to the safety of services, and the minimization of negative environmental impacts. As per the motor insurance industry, removing tariff controls and allowing a free market to develop will enable the industry to turn into a viable business, to invest in the kinds of enhancements needed, e.g., a system to maintain, and access driver records in order to properly assess risk, and charge premiums that reflect the risk profile of individual drivers. PublicationSri Lanka - Toward an Urban Transport Strategy for Colombo : A Technical Note(Washington, DC, 2001-01) World BankThe objective of this paper is to serve as an input into the on-going discussions concerning sectoral and cross-sectoral aspects of the strategy. Following this introduction, the second chapter provides a brief background on the region, its people, economy and the transport system. This is needed given that some readers on the Bank side will not be familiar with Colombo. The third chapter reviews the performance of the regional transport system from the point of view of its various users, and attempts to explain the findings in terms of underlying problems and issues. The fourth chapter presents, in summary form, the strategic proposals currently on the table. The fifth chapter provides a critical review of the proposals. The sixth and final chapter reviews the past involvement of the Bank in this sector, then identifies and discusses options that could be considered for future assistance, if the sector emerges as a joint CAS priority. An attempt has been made to shed a stronger light on people concerns, in addition to a traditional focus on transport regulation, infrastructure investments and traffic management. As an explicit sign of this, boxes with real-life travel stories of persons from the CMR have been sprinkled throughout the text.