Other Infrastructure Study

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    A Study of Road Safety Lead Agencies in Africa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-02-22) Mitullah, Winnie ; Small, Martin ; Azzouzi, Mustapha
    This study of road safety lead agencies (RSLAs) in Africa takes place at an important time when serious injuries on roads are at the centre of discussions on sustainable development. RSLAs in Africa are considered to be critical vehicles for responding to road safety challenges, although how well they do this remains largely unknown. In literature, their functionality, complexity and autonomy has widely been assessed. However, there is limited attempt to link the management capacity of RSLAs to the observed road safety outcomes such as serious injuries and fatality reduction or reduction in the cost of road traffic crashes. Consequently, there is limited evidence as to whether or not lead agencies in Africa are achieving the intended goals of improving road safety status. This study sought to better understand these difficulties and the potential steps to success for RSLAs in Africa. It was commissioned by the African Development Bank and the World Bank and focuses on sixteen African countries. It is part of a global study of road safety lead agencies being undertaken by the World Health Organisation. The study is structured into four sections. Section 2 describes the two-phase methodology–desk study and preparation of the research instruments, data collection and analysis. This is followed in Section 3 by a discussion of the concept of lead agency, which lays the ground for presentation of the study results regarding lead agency performance in Section 4. Section 5 identifies lessons from the study and makes recommendations to improve lead agency performance.
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    Steering Towards Cleaner Air: Measures to Mitigate Transport Air Pollution in Addis Ababa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Grutter, Jurg ; Jia, Wenyu ; Xie, Jian
    Air pollution, exacerbated by urbanization and motorization, is a growing concern in Addis Ababa and many other SSA cities. In Addis Ababa, air pollution from the urban transport sector is attributable to rapid motorization, an aging vehicle fleet, high sulfur fuels, lack of emission standards, and inadequate vehicle inspection and enforcement, calling for a shift towards integrated transport and air quality management. The report is one of the deliverables of the World Bank’s Advisory Services & Analytics program entitled “Ethiopia: Air Quality Management and Urban Mobility.” It aims to assess mitigation options for transport emissions for Addis Ababa (AA) in the Ethiopian context and recommend priority measures for short- and mid-term actions. The formulation of potential mitigation options builds upon a review of relevant development strategies and ongoing initiatives of the Federal and AA governments and development partners, the Ethiopian and international experiences, the results of Addis Ababa’s source apportionment study including vehicle emission inventory conducted for this ASA, and consultations with relevant stakeholders. A set of transport air pollution mitigation measures are assessed, prioritized and recommended for Addis Ababa.
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    Flood-Resilient Mass Transit Planning in Ouagadougou
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    Ouagadougou, the largest city in Burkina Faso, is growing rapidly, with the annual rate reaching 9 percent by some estimates, and with commensurate challenges for ensuring efficient mobility for its residents. Like many urban areas in Sahelian West Africa, Ouagadougou is also highly vulnerable to extreme hydro-meteorological events. In the context of the plans to develop an efficient, bus-based mass transit system in Ouagadougou in the medium term, the study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution and severity of flood risk affecting the planned system; and to identify, evaluate, and prioritize interventions that will increase its resilience. The study focuses on a pilot sector of 67 km, covering a large part of central Ouagadougou and its strategic infrastructures, at the intersection of the future planned mass transit system and the areas of the city a priori considered more flood prone (for example, near the major dams). By working with a local drone operator and an international flood modelling firm, the study constructed high spatial resolution digital elevation and digital terrain models for the area of interest (AOI), which served as inputs for developing a hydrological model. To further classify the road and future mass transit sections in order to prioritize interventions, the analysis applied the criteria of an area priority score and a flood criticality score, which together combine into an overall impact score. The importance of good planning and policy and regulatory actions vis-a-vis more structural engineering solutions is underlined by the fact that the top two measures singled out by the multicriteria analysis are so-called soft solutions - related to the maintenance and cleaning of the flood-related structures and the reinforcement of the waste collection system.
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    Road Safety Data In Africa: A Proposed Minimum Set of Road Safety Indicators for Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-01-23) Segui Gomez, Maria ; Addo-Ashong, Tawia ; Raffo, Veronica Ines ; Venter, Pieter
    Road safety in Africa remains a big challenge. Globally, Africa has the highest fatality rate of all the continents, despite having the lowest motorization rate and smallest road infrastructure network. Through the Global Plan for the Decade of Action (2011-2020), the African Road Safety Action Plan, the African Road Safety Charter, and the targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Africa has made strong commitments to improve road safety outcomes on the continent. However, documents assessing the magnitude of the problem show that there exists a need to address it by implementing effective and efficient interventions, which require determination, professional qualification, and personnel and economic resources. In order to make informed decisions on effective interventions to mitigate this challenge, a deeper analysis of the road safety-related environment in the region is required. This document outlines a process that began in 2017 to define a common set of indicators to be collected, analyzed, and monitored by African countries, as part of their efforts to improve road safety in Africa.
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    Burundi Digital Economy Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12-21) World Bank Group
    Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for accelerating digital adoption in Burundi. Burundi’s current sectoral strategies acknowledge the importance of investing in digital technology. However, these lack an overarching approach with an actionable roadmap and clear resources behind it. Burundi’s mobile network coverage and mobile broadband uptake continues to be characterized by a stark urban-rural divide. Digital platforms are paramount in connecting people, businesses, and the government - enabling both transactions and the exchange of information, goods, and services in more efficient and convenient ways. At present Burundi’s digital entrepreneurship sector remains embryonic, hampered by barriers such as limited ecosystem support and weak access to financing. Whether through the provision of public services closer to its citizens with digital platforms, or through increased financial inclusion enabled by digital financial services and dynamic digital ecosystems, Burundi stands to gain from a continued investment in the foundations of its digital economy. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two reviews cross-cutting factors that affect the strategic, institutional, and regulatory environment for the digital agenda in Burundi. The report proceeds to explore the five foundational pillars of the digital economy, in more depth. Chapter three looks at the access, quality, and usage of digital infrastructure, as well as the dynamics of the connectivity market, including what it will take to get more Burundians online. Chapter four discusses the current state of digital skills attainment and coverage. Chapter five analyzes the current application and scope for expanding the use of digital platforms - both in the public and private sector. Chapter six examines the state and uptake of digital financial services (DFS) among individuals, businesses and by government. Finally, chapter seven assesses the state of digital entrepreneurship and the culture of innovation in Burundi.
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    Enhancing Burkina Faso Regional Connectivity: An Economic Corridor Approach
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank
    Regional integration and international connectivity via economic corridors play an essential role in reducing the isolation of West Africa’s landlocked countries such as Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso’s main international corridors are the Ouagadougou-Lomé road corridor connecting it to Togo, the Ouagadougou-Tema (Ghana) road corridor, and the Ouagadougou-Niamey (Niger) road corridor, as well as the Ouagadougou-Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire) road and rail corridors. Each of the corridors plays a unique role in regional integration, national trade, and sub-national rural and urban development, by providing connectivity to consumption centers, economic production zones, and/or economically lagging areas. The national perspective suggests that the Ouagadougou-Lomé corridor is very important for Burkina Faso’s imports, serving as the artery for about 40 percent of all cargo entering the country, while the Ouagadougou-Abidjan road and rail corridors play an equally crucial role in allowing Burkina Faso’s exports to reach global markets. The region’s trunk road infrastructure is in fair-to-good condition on most sections, although large gaps remain on corridors such as the eastern link between Lomé and Niamey. This study develops several scenarios of corridor interventions that address the inefficiencies to quantify the expected impacts in terms of real income growth and domestic market accessibility.
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    Managing Risks for a Safer Built Environment in Malawi: Building Regulatory Capacity Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank Group
    In a rapidly urbanising world, Malawi remains one of the least urbanised countries in Africa. Approximately 16.7 percent of Malawi's population live in urban areas. Nevertheless, the country is urbanising at a moderate rate of approximately 3.7–3.9 percent per year. If growth continues at this rate, by 2030, approximately 20 percent of the population will be city dwellers, reaching 30 percent in 2050. This urban growth has the potential to improve economic opportunities and living conditions across Malawi. This is particularly significant given that approximately 69 percent of the population are living under the international poverty line of 1.9 US Dollars/day in purchasing power parity terms. However, challenges are also associated with this shift and concentration of population. With urbanisation comes a substantial amount of new construction. In Malawi, much of this new construction has occurred in cities and towns with limited capacity to ensure the structures in which people live, work and gather are safely sited and built to withstand chronic stresses (i.e. fire and spontaneous collapse) and disaster shocks (i.e. earthquakes and floods). In Lilongwe, for example, estimates indicate that 76 percent of residents live in informal settlements. These settlements are generally characterised by a lack of access to publicservices, tenure insecurity and inadequate housing. Malawi is impacted by a wide range of hazards, particularly droughts, floods, landslides, wildfires and earthquakes. Malawi is also vulnerable to recurrent and chronic risks. Large building fires in recent years include the LL and Mchinji Markets and the Mulanje Bus Depot in 2016 and the Area 13 and Zomba Market in 2018. In many ways, Malawi is at a crossroads: the regulatory decisions made now will significantly impact the longterm safety, productivity and resilience of the built environment in rural and urban areas. With its low base and moderate rate of urbanisation, Malawi is wellpositioned to formulate plans to maximise the benefits and to manage the challenges of urban agglomeration.
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    Infrastructure Development in Edo State: Adapting to Constraints and Creating Capabilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-04-29) Porter, Douglas John ; Rasool Cyan, Musharraf ; Lee, Panthea ; Brisson, Zack ; Itegboje, Osione ; Talsma, Adam
    Governor Adams Oshiomhole assumed office in November 2008 following a successful court appeal to retrieve the mandate given to him by the people of Edo. Widespread support from a variety of interest groups buttressed the legal challenge and helped create the political space for the Governor’s pursuit of an agenda focused on both reform and speedy delivery. Popular demand for reform was evident, but responding to this presented major challenges. Historically,Edo had been one of the best performing states in the country. Expectations were high that he would restore this status and address the perceived poor performance and allegations of corruption leveled against previous administrations. This case study is an attempt to better understand the process through which the Administration was able to maximize its delivery. This report is one product of several ongoing efforts by the World Bank to better understand how to better tailor its interventions to local realities with the overarching objective of improving its impact. To do this in the case of capital spending in Edo, it was necessary to craft a study method that suspended judgments about actual practices. Thus, rather than holding these practices up to international standards, and highlighting deficits and shortcomings in relation to those standards, the study purpose was to depict how the State administration had responded to the political priorities of the new Governor by adapting to the constraints it faced and creating new ways to deliver through infrastructure spending. This case study underlines the very rich and often messy reality that leaders frequently find when assuming office and the trade-offs that they are forced to make. In doing so, it reminds us of the political realities within which we work and, like other case studies recently undertaken to inform Bank engagements in Nigeria, finds that traditional blue print approaches in such circumstances are unlikely to work and that sequencing, tailoring to local contexts and adaptation along a non-linear road to reform is more feasible path.
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    Summary Note on Technical Assistance Provided in Support of the Greater Harare Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-01) World Bank
    The severe conditions in Zimbabwe, which reached a nadir in 2008 and 2009, led to a collapse of basic systems including the reliability and safety of water supply and sanitation services, leading to an outbreak of cholera with more than 4,000 deaths and over 90,000 people infected. The World Bank provided Technical Assistance (TA) to the City of Harare to improve water and sanitation services in the period October 2012 to June 2014 to the value of approximately 600,000 US dollars. This Summary Note summarizes the key elements of the work undertaken and makes a set of recommendations to the City of Harare, the adjacent local authorities of Chitungwiza, Epworth, Norton and Ruwa, and Government of Zimbabwe to inform a strategic plan to improve water and Sanitation services in the greater Harare area. This Summary Note also sets out the context at the commencement of the TA, summarizes the work undertaken in the TA and the outcomes from this work, and makes recommendations for the way forward.
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    Where Should the Next Dollar Be Best Spent?: Policy Advice Drawn from the World Bank Zimbabwe Water Sector Investment Analysis
    (Washington, DC, 2014-10) World Bank
    This policy paper records the outcome of a strategic analysis of investment requirements in the water sector in Zimbabwe as of December 2013. The work, entitled Zimbabwe water sector investment analysis, was undertaken in close collaboration with senior officials in Zimbabwe as an exercise in determining where World Bank investments may be most effective in the future, and to assist the government of Zimbabwe to develop its own investment strategies. The analysis was framed around two key questions: (1) what immediate investments are required to ensure that water in sufficient quantity and at adequate quality will be available to underpin recovery? This is in order to ensure that water availability would not constitute a constraint to future growth and development; and (2) where in the water sector should the next dollar be best spent? This paper summarizes the context of the water sector in Zimbabwe at the time of the study and reflects the key elements of policy advice derived from the analysis. It is important to record and recognize the key elements of policy advice provided by the World Bank through the water sector investment analysis.