Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Morocco Infrastructure Review
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) World Bank Group
    Over the last twenty years, Morocco has invested massively in infrastructure. At the macroeconomic level, total investment of between 25 percent and 38 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) occurred between 2001 and 2017, one of the highest rates of investment globally. Much of this investment has gone into infrastructure, and more than half of it was undertaken by the public sector (treasury, public enterprises and local authorities). Morocco is also among countries receiving the most official development assistance relative to GDP, half of which is invested in infrastructure. The investments have created more reliable supply chains, improved access to markets and basic services, and increased productivity. Following this executive summary, chapter one reviews the quantity and quality of infrastructure services in Morocco and the notable achievements that the country has made in this regard; chapter two discusses Morocco’s infrastructure challenges; chapter three describes Morocco’s infrastructure investment needs and macroeconomic constraints; and, chapter four discusses proposed cross-cutting reforms. Appendix A provides key indicators for each infrastructure sector, Appendix B provides sector specific recommendations and lists selected projects in the infrastructure pipeline, and Appendix C explains the methodology used to derive the infrastructure investment estimates.
  • Publication
    Tunisia Infrastructure Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank Group
    Tunisia’s has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia’s infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia’s infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government.
  • Publication
    Managing Risks for a Safer Built Environment in Malawi: Building Regulatory Capacity Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank Group
    In a rapidly urbanising world, Malawi remains one of the least urbanised countries in Africa. Approximately 16.7 percent of Malawi's population live in urban areas. Nevertheless, the country is urbanising at a moderate rate of approximately 3.7–3.9 percent per year. If growth continues at this rate, by 2030, approximately 20 percent of the population will be city dwellers, reaching 30 percent in 2050. This urban growth has the potential to improve economic opportunities and living conditions across Malawi. This is particularly significant given that approximately 69 percent of the population are living under the international poverty line of 1.9 US Dollars/day in purchasing power parity terms. However, challenges are also associated with this shift and concentration of population. With urbanisation comes a substantial amount of new construction. In Malawi, much of this new construction has occurred in cities and towns with limited capacity to ensure the structures in which people live, work and gather are safely sited and built to withstand chronic stresses (i.e. fire and spontaneous collapse) and disaster shocks (i.e. earthquakes and floods). In Lilongwe, for example, estimates indicate that 76 percent of residents live in informal settlements. These settlements are generally characterised by a lack of access to publicservices, tenure insecurity and inadequate housing. Malawi is impacted by a wide range of hazards, particularly droughts, floods, landslides, wildfires and earthquakes. Malawi is also vulnerable to recurrent and chronic risks. Large building fires in recent years include the LL and Mchinji Markets and the Mulanje Bus Depot in 2016 and the Area 13 and Zomba Market in 2018. In many ways, Malawi is at a crossroads: the regulatory decisions made now will significantly impact the longterm safety, productivity and resilience of the built environment in rural and urban areas. With its low base and moderate rate of urbanisation, Malawi is wellpositioned to formulate plans to maximise the benefits and to manage the challenges of urban agglomeration.
  • Publication
    New Perspectives on Results-Based Blended Finance for Cities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019) World Bank Group
    There is clear evidence on the need for cities to rapidly scale-up their investments in climate change mitigation programs and build strong foundations for climate-resilient communities. Investing in low carbon infrastructure and climate resilience can generate competitive returns and is crucial for preventing a reversal of the development gains made in low-income countries up until now. Overcoming the barriers in financing climate-smart infrastructure in cities means adjusting their currently unattractive and inadequate risk-return investment profile. Our analysis explains that well-targeted concessional funding can derisk the financing structure of a project and turn a typical non-bankable project to financial viable one. Additionally, it makes the case for results-based blended finance approaches that strengthen the accountability in project development by linking financing to the achievement of measurable, pre-agreed results. Addressing the lack of creditworthiness, the limited accountability and capacity in institutions and service delivery practices should be at the center of urban investment strategies. The report highlights the need for technical assistance and capacity building programs that will support cities bring order to their financing and accounting practices, support shadow credit ratings and help them become creditworthy. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the 500 largest cities in developing countries are considered creditworthy. Cities and development partners face a common challenge: Making the most effective use of available public finance instruments and disburse scarce public (concessional) funds in a way that maximally leverages private sector co-investments.
  • Publication
    Building the Resilience of WSS Utilities to Climate Change and Other Threats: A Road Map
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-29) World Bank Group
    Water supply and sanitation (WSS) utilities are expected to become increasingly susceptible to the expected impacts of climate change. WSS utility planners and engineers have dealt with natural climate variances and disaster planning as part of the design process for many years. However, the traditional methods for these plans have not considered the deep uncertainty surrounding many future conditions, which are further exacerbated by climate change. To help utilities incorporate resilience and robustness in their choices, this road map proposes a process in three phases that can inform the design of strategies necessary to WSS services provision. The road map builds on the understanding that climate change is most often an amplifier of existing uncertainties (many of which are threats), and, as such, should not be evaluated as a stand-alone impact. The approach reveals the strengths and vulnerabilities of investment plans concisely and helps utilities invest robustly by identifying near-term, no-regret projects that can be undertaken now, while maintaining flexibility in pursuing additional actions adaptively as future conditions evolve. These results can be achieved both with a qualitative exploration and a quantitative assessment, depending on the context and the resources available.
  • Publication
    Egypt: Enabling Private Investment and Commercial Financing in Infrastructure
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-01) World Bank Group
    In 2016 the Government of Egypt (GoE) has embarked on an ambitious and much needed transition towards a better economic policy. While the macroeconomic stability and market confidence have been largely restored, the overall fiscal situation remains challenging. With limited fiscal space, solely relying on public resources to fund infrastructure investments, will no longer be a viable strategy to meet the country's needs. Building on the success of attracting private investment in renewables and natural gas sector, there is significant potential for replicating the success across other infrastructure sectors. Egypt has recognized that in order to raise competitiveness, increase investments in human capital, and sustain the benefits of the homegrown reform; it will need to continuously shift its development model towards creating an enabling environment for the private sector to invest more, export more and generate more jobs. Starting with Energy, Transport, Water and Sanitation and Agriculture, this report highlights the tremendous potential and opportunities available in each of these sectors. Additionally, it also presents a roadmap for sectoral transformation, whilst highlighting the cross-cutting enabling and functional activities required to facilitate this transition.
  • Publication
    Investing in Logistics for Sustainable Economic Growth: Background Studies for the Preparation of Cambodia Logistics Master Plan
    (World Bank, Phnom Penh, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    The World Bank prepared three background studies as inputs for the development of the Cambodia Logistics Master Plan led by the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) in 2017–2018. These studies benefit from a close coordination and collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) that focused its assessment on transport infrastructure and connectivity. The key findings and recommendations are summarized into four parts in respect of the three background studies: (a) an update of trade competitiveness, (b) a review of the legal and regulatory framework of the logistics sector in Cambodia, and (c) a design of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework for the proposed Cambodia Logistics Master Plan.
  • Publication
    The Russian Federation - An Exploratory Assessment of Transport Connectivity
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-12) World Bank Group
    This study describes the performance of the sector vis-à-vis socioeconomic features of regions and discusses whether the development of market opportunities is limited by the availability of transport.Specifically, this study has two main objectives. First, it provides an exploratory assessment of transport connectivity in Russia. Second, it assesses the impact of improved transport productivity on the Russian economy and whether such an improvement has different economic impacts in various regions of the country. The study is complemented by a market/industry analysis and the performance of transport infrastructure in two selected regions : Zabaikalsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai. Transport connectivity, as defined in this study, mainly focuses on freight transport and not so much on how passengers in different parts of the country are able to access transport services. Furthermore, while this study assesses general relationships between transport connectivity and economic outcomes—such as growth, poverty, and productivity it does not intend to formally or empirically establish a causal relationship between these variables. Expectedly, the average economic distance to market is much less in the well-connected western and central regions than in the more isolated eastern and northern regions. An increase in transport efficiency, resulting from reduction of travel time or technological progress,can have a different impact on regional productivity and welfare. This study presents some preliminary results of a simulation of a positive shock in transport efficiency using a regional general equilibrium analysis for Russia. International surveys of manufacturing and services firms provide mixed evidence of the importanceof transport for firm productivity in Russia.For a country as a large as Russia, it does not suffice to provide an explanation of connectivity in thewhole territory. However, isolated regions, at least those located in areas far from markets in the European side of Russia, may not necessarily be “transport disconnected” from their markets. Finally, it is important to note that in a large country like Russia achieving a good level of connectivity depends both on the density of the national transport network and the level of population dispersion.This report is divided into two parts. Part one considers the provision of transport services at the national level. We first summarize selected studies of the impact of transport services on economic growth and development, then discuss some relevant characteristics of Russia’s provision of transport services andtransport sector performance. Part two of the report develops two case studies.
  • Publication
    Shifting into Higher Gear: Recommendations for Improved Grain Logistics in Ukraine
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-08) World Bank Group
    This study was conceived on the basis of a request by Ukraine’s Ministry of Agricultural Policies and Food (MoAPF). In 2013, the MoAPF explored the World Bank’s interest for investing in grain hoppers, following a deficit of hoppers and concerns about related difficulties for grain transport. In response, the World Bank secured resources from the Multi Donor Trust Fund for Trade and Development (TF016693) to carry out a review of grain logistics in Ukraine in order to better understand the challenges facing the sector. The objectives of this report are to assess the functioning of the grain logistics system, identify bottlenecks and put forward practical recommendations for investments and reform. Research points to five key drivers of current high logistics costs: (i) lack of regulatory clarity and sub-optimal management of public assets that create barriers to private investments; (ii) underutilization of river transport, (iii) underinvestment in rail transport; (iv) inefficiencies in storage management, and (v) excessive use of road transport. However, there are two important limitations of the report that should be taken into account. First, the ongoing crisis remains a source of uncertainty. It has so far had limited impact on grain production and logistics, yet access to finance has become more difficult and other impacts might arise in the future. Second, there are two areas that the report does not address: customs and ports. Both are important elements of logistics costs and deserve a comprehensive analysis in the future.