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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank GroupTunisia’s has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia’s infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia’s infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-01) World Bank GroupIn 2016 the Government of Egypt (GoE) has embarked on an ambitious and much needed transition towards a better economic policy. While the macroeconomic stability and market confidence have been largely restored, the overall fiscal situation remains challenging. With limited fiscal space, solely relying on public resources to fund infrastructure investments, will no longer be a viable strategy to meet the country's needs. Building on the success of attracting private investment in renewables and natural gas sector, there is significant potential for replicating the success across other infrastructure sectors. Egypt has recognized that in order to raise competitiveness, increase investments in human capital, and sustain the benefits of the homegrown reform; it will need to continuously shift its development model towards creating an enabling environment for the private sector to invest more, export more and generate more jobs. Starting with Energy, Transport, Water and Sanitation and Agriculture, this report highlights the tremendous potential and opportunities available in each of these sectors. Additionally, it also presents a roadmap for sectoral transformation, whilst highlighting the cross-cutting enabling and functional activities required to facilitate this transition.