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PublicationIntegrating Resilience into Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Kenya: Guidance Note for Municipal and County Engineer and Planners - Urban Resilient Infrastructure Guideline(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World BankThis Resilient Urban Infrastructure Guidelines forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 2. This guidance note provides simple guidance for increasing the resilience of municipal infrastructure projects, and of communities, to physical risks, notably impacts of climate changes. This will increase the sustainability of investments under Second Kenya Urban Support Program (KUSP2), enabling them to perform their required function for their proposed design life, in a changing climate. It follows, roughly chronologically, the project development and design process. For the purposes of this note, resilient urban infrastructure is defined as infrastructure that is designed to deliver essential services now and in the future. It is prepared for and can withstand, adapt and recover positively from the physical (and climatic) shocks and stresses it may face over its lifetime. This is both with regards to the assets themselves, as well as the wider system that these assets are part of, which could include: the natural environment, the urban system, the operators, and the communities that interact with them. PublicationBuilding Regulations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Status Review of the Building Regulatory Environment(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-20) World Bank; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and RecoveryBuildings should provide safe, comfortable, and healthy environments for people to live and work. They are an essential component of societies and economies, housing critical infrastructure necessary to keep governments and businesses in operation. At the same time, buildings are the first line of defense against natural hazards and climate impacts for the general population. The scope of this report is limited to regulatory frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, with a focus on buildings rather than on specialized construction types such as infrastructure for water, energy, transport, or communications. The report focuses on the technical aspects of the regulatory frameworks: market and financial solutions fall beyond its scope. Chapter 1 of the report describes the components, concepts, and desired outcomes of building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 2 explains the evolution of the building regulation environment in Sub-Saharan Africa and the region-specific hazards and risks that the regulatory environment must respond to. Chapter 3 presents data on the building regulatory environment for each country in the region. It covers all aspects of the building regulatory cycle: from the legally adopted building regulations that exist, to what they cover, to the implementation of regulations through compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Chapter 4 offers guidance on how to improve and update building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 5 contains region-specific conclusions and recommendations for strengthening building regulatory frameworks because of the analyses carried out in Chapters 3 and 4. Additionally, Appendix A summarizes key data for each country. PublicationTransport and Logistics: Myanmar Infrastructure Monitoring(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World BankTransport and logistics services in Myanmar have been substantially hit by the impacts of the February 2021 coup and the surge in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Logistics companies have been affected by rising fuel prices, border closures, and a shortage of shipping containers. While the initial effects after the military coup on the transport sector were extremely severe, there have been signs of some recovery of transport services since May 2021. Public transport in Yangon experienced a significant reduction in passenger demand in early months after the coup, subsequently recovering some ground by December 2021. Higher fuel prices and currency liquidity shortages significantly increased the cost of inland transport services. Transportation and logistics services are expected to be severely impacted by continuing high fuel prices, mobility constrains, political instability, and evolution of the pandemic. The export and import via container are expected to recover gradually due to agricultural and garment industry-led demand. However, improvement of exports and imports in the medium term is uncertain given the complexity of trade relations with international trade partners. In addition to effects of the coup and political conflicts, risks related to the pandemic will also significantly impact logistics supply chains and mobility in the near to mid-term. PublicationA Study of Road Safety Lead Agencies in Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-02-22) Mitullah, Winnie; Small, Martin; Azzouzi, MustaphaThis study of road safety lead agencies (RSLAs) in Africa takes place at an important time when serious injuries on roads are at the centre of discussions on sustainable development. RSLAs in Africa are considered to be critical vehicles for responding to road safety challenges, although how well they do this remains largely unknown. In literature, their functionality, complexity and autonomy has widely been assessed. However, there is limited attempt to link the management capacity of RSLAs to the observed road safety outcomes such as serious injuries and fatality reduction or reduction in the cost of road traffic crashes. Consequently, there is limited evidence as to whether or not lead agencies in Africa are achieving the intended goals of improving road safety status. This study sought to better understand these difficulties and the potential steps to success for RSLAs in Africa. It was commissioned by the African Development Bank and the World Bank and focuses on sixteen African countries. It is part of a global study of road safety lead agencies being undertaken by the World Health Organisation. The study is structured into four sections. Section 2 describes the two-phase methodology–desk study and preparation of the research instruments, data collection and analysis. This is followed in Section 3 by a discussion of the concept of lead agency, which lays the ground for presentation of the study results regarding lead agency performance in Section 4. Section 5 identifies lessons from the study and makes recommendations to improve lead agency performance. PublicationTransport Asset Management Plan Guideline for Climate Resilience and Road Safety (Phase I) for the Municipality of Ulaanbaatar(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-01) World BankThis is the first iteration of a Transport Asset Management Planning (TAMP) Guideline for Ulaanbaatar. This TAMP Guideline I guides the Municipality of Ulaanbaatar (MUB) to move away from its conventional reactive decision-making approach and adopt a systematic, evidence- and risk-based approach in maintaining its road assets. The reactive way of doing business, which postpones repair activities until major deterioration occurs, is no longer sustainable. It is too expensive, and it erodes the value of important and costly road assets. As the costs of operating and repairing roads continue to increase, it has become more difficult for the MUB to meet the demands of an aging and expanding infrastructure while dealing with public expectations to provide the same level of service. This TAMP Guideline can therefore serve as a medium- and long-term tactical guide for MUB to plan for repair and maintenance of its transport assets to provide good quality road network to UB’s citizens while optimizing the use of its scarce financial resources for maintenance and repairs. The TAMP incorporates two key risks that strain the performance and safety of UB’s road network: climate risks (particularly urban flooding) and road safety risks. PublicationIdentification of Business Models to Accelerate E-Bus Introduction in Uruguay(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThis report is the product of the technical assistance to develop a business model to finance and scale up e-mobility in Uruguay provided by the World Bank and funded by the Mobility and Logistics (MOLO) Trust Fund. The report systematically analyzes international experiences and synthesizes them as stylized business models. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. The Uruguayan experience in terms of e-bus deployment since 2019 has shown to be effective based on an integrated assets model (Bus service providers (BSPs) own chassis, batteries, and charging stations), financed through a combination of a fleet renewal trust fund from the Municipality of Montevideo and an investment subsidy from the Government of Uruguay. Beyond the public investment subsidy, the Municipality of Montevideo trust fund for fleet renewal has managed to get financing and guarantees at a moderate interest rate, helping to mitigate the high investment cost of e-buses. PublicationMyths and Realities of Informal Public Transport in Developing Countries: Approaches for Improving the Sector - Discussion Paper(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-12-01) Kumar, Ajay; Zimmerman, Sam; Arroyo Arroyo, Fatima; SSATPIt is often said that transport is the one economic sector that can degrade as incomes increase. The degradation is manifested in increasing congestion, pollution, accidents, and other traffic related maladies. One view is that the root of the problem lies in rising incomes that lead to even faster-rising motorization. Another assessment sees a motorization-induced decline of “formal” publictransport systems and the rise of “informal” services as key issues, but it is unclear whether the rise of the informal sector is the result of transport system degradation or the cause. Understanding the basic causes of the transport system’s decline and the dominance of informal public transport is essential before improvements can be identified. Because of its social, economic, and environmental importance, the paper’s main focus is on public transport in general, specifically its so-called “informal” aspects. The objectives of thepaper are to: a) examine the uniqueness of public transport systems in Sub-Saharan African cities in terms of their historical, institutional, spatial, social, environmental, economic, and political contexts; b) explore the causes of the decline of developing country transport systems in general and in public transport’s degradation in particular; c) discuss commonly-held misconceptions sothat policymakers at all levels of government can understand the issues that must be addressed if “informal” public transport is to be improved as part of an enhanced, customer-driven public transport system; and d) propose the outline of a roadmap for making improvements. Subsequent work will examine in more detail what an improved public transport system would look like and how it can be achieved. This paper also focuses on all aspects of so-called “minibus-taxis,” the oldest and most prevalent informal sector mode in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. This mode goes by different names in different places; however, the many causes of its rise and the impacts of the rise are common throughout the developing world. Relatively new informal public transport operations using three-wheeled shared ride vehicles (e.g., “Tempos” in India) and motorcycle taxis (e.g., “Xiom” in Vietnam) have arisen as minibus taxis with similar operating and business models. PublicationSteering Towards Cleaner Air: Measures to Mitigate Transport Air Pollution in Addis Ababa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Grutter, Jurg; Jia, Wenyu; Xie, JianAir pollution, exacerbated by urbanization and motorization, is a growing concern in Addis Ababa and many other SSA cities. In Addis Ababa, air pollution from the urban transport sector is attributable to rapid motorization, an aging vehicle fleet, high sulfur fuels, lack of emission standards, and inadequate vehicle inspection and enforcement, calling for a shift towards integrated transport and air quality management. The report is one of the deliverables of the World Bank’s Advisory Services & Analytics program entitled “Ethiopia: Air Quality Management and Urban Mobility.” It aims to assess mitigation options for transport emissions for Addis Ababa (AA) in the Ethiopian context and recommend priority measures for short- and mid-term actions. The formulation of potential mitigation options builds upon a review of relevant development strategies and ongoing initiatives of the Federal and AA governments and development partners, the Ethiopian and international experiences, the results of Addis Ababa’s source apportionment study including vehicle emission inventory conducted for this ASA, and consultations with relevant stakeholders. A set of transport air pollution mitigation measures are assessed, prioritized and recommended for Addis Ababa. PublicationFlood-Resilient Mass Transit Planning in Ouagadougou(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World BankOuagadougou, the largest city in Burkina Faso, is growing rapidly, with the annual rate reaching 9 percent by some estimates, and with commensurate challenges for ensuring efficient mobility for its residents. Like many urban areas in Sahelian West Africa, Ouagadougou is also highly vulnerable to extreme hydro-meteorological events. In the context of the plans to develop an efficient, bus-based mass transit system in Ouagadougou in the medium term, the study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution and severity of flood risk affecting the planned system; and to identify, evaluate, and prioritize interventions that will increase its resilience. The study focuses on a pilot sector of 67 km, covering a large part of central Ouagadougou and its strategic infrastructures, at the intersection of the future planned mass transit system and the areas of the city a priori considered more flood prone (for example, near the major dams). By working with a local drone operator and an international flood modelling firm, the study constructed high spatial resolution digital elevation and digital terrain models for the area of interest (AOI), which served as inputs for developing a hydrological model. To further classify the road and future mass transit sections in order to prioritize interventions, the analysis applied the criteria of an area priority score and a flood criticality score, which together combine into an overall impact score. The importance of good planning and policy and regulatory actions vis-a-vis more structural engineering solutions is underlined by the fact that the top two measures singled out by the multicriteria analysis are so-called soft solutions - related to the maintenance and cleaning of the flood-related structures and the reinforcement of the waste collection system. PublicationRoad Safety Management Capacity Assessment for Vanuatu(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-01) World BankThis Road Safety Management Capacity Assessment (RSMCA) seeks to gain a broad understanding of the Government of Vanuatu's road safety management capacity to support its plans to improve road safety outcomes throughout the country. The RSMCA follows the seven critical road safety institutional management functions (Bliss and Breen 2013) to identify key challenges and provide recommendations for improvement in road safety management, and similarly addresses the Safe System pillars for the interventions level. The seven institutional management functions include: results focus, coordination, legislation, finance and resource allocation, promotion and advocacy, monitoring and evaluation, and research and development of knowledge transfer. The Safe System pillars include road safety management, safe roads and mobility, safe vehicles, safe road users, post-crash care, and safe speeds. The RSMCA’s alignment with both the road safety institutional management functions and the Safe System Approach in turn aims to help the Government of Vanuatu to prioritize targeted next steps to address road crash death and serious injury in the country.