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PublicationClimate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Compendium Volume: A Focus on Infrastructure Project Design in Key Sectors(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World BankThis Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume. PublicationEnergy Sector: MyanmarvInfrastructure Monitoring(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World BankMyanmar’s energy sector has been severely affected by the dual shocks of the February 2021 coup and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developments in the energy sector after the coup have undermined nascent energy sector reforms over the last few years, including reforms that led to improved service delivery, restructured electricity tariffs, and increased electricity access. Constraints in human resources resulting from the dismissal of over 4,400 staff in key entities and departments under the Ministry of Electricity and Energy (MoEE) has put power sector operation at risk. Public boycott of electricity payments and rising costs of electricity due to dollar-denominated independent power producers have adversely affected the financial viability of the power sector. The political instability in the aftermath of the coup has led to significant operational and financial burdens on the sector, affecting the sector financial viability and fiscal sustainability. Investor confidence has plummeted amid uncertainty and a worsening investment climate, jeopardizing the implementation of approved power projects, including renewable solar. While the global commodity rally continues, there are serious challenges ahead, including the need for skilled labor to ensure electricity reliability, maintain the security of power infrastructure, and increase electricity revenues. PublicationRenewable Energy Jobs and Sector Skills Mapping for Pakistan(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThe Government of Pakistan (GOP) has adopted ambitious national renewable energy (RE) targets under the RE policy 2019. The policy sets out a growth trajectory for grid connected, non-hydro renewables, mandating at least 20 percent renewables in the country’s installed power generation capacity by 2025 and 30 percent by 2030. The government has simultaneously approved a comprehensive power generation capacity expansion plan, the integrated generation capacity expansion plan 2021-2030. Since large hydropower makes up the bulk of capacity additions in the IGCEP, new wind, solar, and bagasse projects in the IGCEP account for approximately 11,700 MW compared to 16,300 MW of non-hydro RE needed to meet the national RE targets. To capitalize on the employment creation potential of the RE targets and the IGCEP, policy makers will have to anticipate changes in workforce trends and develop a preemptive plan to manage skill requirements and prevent workforce shortages. This study was commissioned by the World Bank to facilitate cohesive RE workforce planning and identify skill gaps that can inhibit RE investments in Pakistan. The findings of the study will help inform skill development in RE by providing policy makers and other stakeholders, including the higher education commission (HEC) and the national vocational and technical training commission (NAVTTC), with indicative employment projections required for long-term planning. PublicationSustainable Development of Inland Waterways Transport in Vietnam: Strengthening the Regulatory, Institutional and Funding Frameworks(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankVietnam has a long history of using its rivers and canals for transportation of goods and people. Today, Vietnam’s waterways transport about 17 percent of all domestic goods tonage loaded in Vietnam and perform nearly 19 percent of all traffic tasks, a measure which combines both tonnes loaded and distance carried. These are very high levels by international standards, and Vietnam’s national freight task proportion is more than double that for China, the United States, and the European Union where inland waterways are also prevalent. Right after its integration into the international economic community in the late 1980s, Vietnam listed the development of inland waterways transport as one of its priorities to boost economic growth. Overcoming financing constraints, the country has made enormous strides in developing its inland waterways transport by efficiently exploiting the natural conditions of its rivers and canals. However, exploiting only the natural conditions of Vietnam’s inland waterways could diminish the country’s competitive advantage over time. In order to bring the waterways’ great potential into reality, further investment is required in the institutional structure, in strengthening the legal and regulatory framework, and in improvement of the funding framework for the sector. This report provides a comprehensive review and assessment of the challenges that the sector faces, along with a reform program recommended to the government of Vietnam that could help improve the enabling environment for the inland waterways transport industry and further its growth and technical sophistication. PublicationIdentification of Business Models to Accelerate E-Bus Introduction in Uruguay(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThis report is the product of the technical assistance to develop a business model to finance and scale up e-mobility in Uruguay provided by the World Bank and funded by the Mobility and Logistics (MOLO) Trust Fund. The report systematically analyzes international experiences and synthesizes them as stylized business models. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. Combining key learnings from other countries and an in-depth assessment of the regulatory and fiscal framework in Uruguay, the report formulates five alternative business models. In a next step, it evaluates these models under different scenarios regarding their expected financial and fiscal impacts. The Uruguayan experience in terms of e-bus deployment since 2019 has shown to be effective based on an integrated assets model (Bus service providers (BSPs) own chassis, batteries, and charging stations), financed through a combination of a fleet renewal trust fund from the Municipality of Montevideo and an investment subsidy from the Government of Uruguay. Beyond the public investment subsidy, the Municipality of Montevideo trust fund for fleet renewal has managed to get financing and guarantees at a moderate interest rate, helping to mitigate the high investment cost of e-buses. PublicationSeismic Risk(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-04-22) World BankThe importance of ensuring that dam structures can withstand earthquakes has been recognized and practiced for many years. The technical capability of the dam engineering industry in the seismic design of dam structures has increased considerably since the 1980-1990s. Dams designed using modern seismic engineering principles that are well constructed have performed well during earthquakes, with only modest damage. Older dams that have suffered damage from earthquakes are likely to have been subjected to poor construction or maintenance, or they lack modern defensive design measures to prevent failure. Seismic hazard varies around the world. Some countries experience major earthquakes frequently, whereas other countries have hardly ever experienced one. This technical note contains the minimum level of technical detail for seismic design of new structures and seismic assessment of existing structures, so that non-specialists can use it. The key objective is to provide guidance for addressing seismic aspects of dam projects early on in project preparation. The note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation. The material presented should be used to assess the required level of seismic hazard assessment, review the adequacy of the dam’s seismic design and resilience measures, and recommend required expertise for quality assurance of projects involving dams in seismic areas. PublicationHydrological Risk(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World BankThis Technical Note contains a level of technical detail that non-specialists can use for guidance in addressing the hydrological aspects of dam projects early in the project preparation. It is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation and implementation. The material presented should be used to prepare terms of reference on such studies and to assess the adequacy of methodology proposed by consultants in response to tenders for advisory services. It is recommended that, reading the Note, the client and the World Bank project teams will assess the required level of hydrological expertise in the teams. The hydrological subjects this Note covers are typical in World Bank–supported operations. There are several other subjects pertaining to hydrology that it does not cover. Enlarging the scope to those subjects will defeat the objective and turn the Note into a handbook on the vast discipline of hydrology. The same selective effort has been applied in choosing the references that the reader can consult to focus on specific subjects. For that reason, the list has been limited to essential references that provide general guidance on required hydrology studies, whereas the additional sources complement the general guidance with references dealing with specific aspects of the project hydrology. PublicationTailings Storage Facilities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World BankTailings storage facilities (TSFs) are engineered structures that comprise the confining embankments (commonly referred to as tailings dams) and associated works and are designed to contain tailings (residue following extraction of valuable material from metal ore processing) and to manage associated water. TSF contains mixed waste material from mining processes in liquid or slurry form and must be responsibly managed to prevent impacts on human health and safety, the environment, and other infrastructure. However, TSFs have historically suffered more problems than water storage dams. Internationally, TSFs have a historical long-term average of more than one major incident or failure per year. To manage mining facilities responsibly, the TSF owner must understand the physical and chemical risks associated with the TSF and implement controls to reduce risks relating to potential health, safety, environmental, societal, business, and economic impacts in line with regulations. International organizations, regulators and industries have developed guidelines to aid owners in the management of TSFs. These guidelines were used to develop this Technical Note. The Note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies/investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation. PublicationPortfolio Risk Assessment Using Risk Index(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World BankThis Technical Note provides detailed information on the Brazilian risk classification system using the RI approach and the Indian RI system for the initial risk screening of a large portfolio of existing dams. Annex A provides basic information about the RI approach used in Quebec, Canada, for its dam classification system. These RIs are used for prioritization of required remedial works and other safety requirements. It should be noted, however, that RI is also a basic tool for preliminary level risk analyses for portfolios of dams and initial screening of risky dams, which may need to be supplemented by more advanced methods, depending on the type and potential risk of the dams. Because RI largely relies on visual inspection of the dams’ conditions, some critical failure modes could be missed. underestimated, or overestimated. In the higher risk cases, or whenever deemed appropriate, more detailed risk analyses, such as potential failure mode analysis (PFMA), can fill some of the gaps. PublicationGeotechnical Risk(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World BankThis Technical Note is prepared to provide guidance to the World Bank task teams and clients regarding geological and geotechnical issues and recommended risk mitigation and management measures. The investigation, design, and construction of dams should identify and consider all potential hazards and threats to dam safety while being cognizant of the associated consequences of dam failure.