Other Infrastructure Study

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    Geotechnical Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note is prepared to provide guidance to the World Bank task teams and clients regarding geological and geotechnical issues and recommended risk mitigation and management measures. The investigation, design, and construction of dams should identify and consider all potential hazards and threats to dam safety while being cognizant of the associated consequences of dam failure.
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    Portfolio Risk Assessment Using Risk Index
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note provides detailed information on the Brazilian risk classification system using the RI approach and the Indian RI system for the initial risk screening of a large portfolio of existing dams. Annex A provides basic information about the RI approach used in Quebec, Canada, for its dam classification system. These RIs are used for prioritization of required remedial works and other safety requirements. It should be noted, however, that RI is also a basic tool for preliminary level risk analyses for portfolios of dams and initial screening of risky dams, which may need to be supplemented by more advanced methods, depending on the type and potential risk of the dams. Because RI largely relies on visual inspection of the dams’ conditions, some critical failure modes could be missed. underestimated, or overestimated. In the higher risk cases, or whenever deemed appropriate, more detailed risk analyses, such as potential failure mode analysis (PFMA), can fill some of the gaps.
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    Seismic Risk
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    The importance of ensuring that dam structures can withstand earthquakes has been recognized and practiced for many years. The technical capability of the dam engineering industry in the seismic design of dam structures has increased considerably since the 1980-1990s. Dams designed using modern seismic engineering principles that are well constructed have performed well during earthquakes, with only modest damage. Older dams that have suffered damage from earthquakes are likely to have been subjected to poor construction or maintenance, or they lack modern defensive design measures to prevent failure. Seismic hazard varies around the world. Some countries experience major earthquakes frequently, whereas other countries have hardly ever experienced one. This technical note contains the minimum level of technical detail for seismic design of new structures and seismic assessment of existing structures, so that non-specialists can use it. The key objective is to provide guidance for addressing seismic aspects of dam projects early on in project preparation. The note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation. The material presented should be used to assess the required level of seismic hazard assessment, review the adequacy of the dam’s seismic design and resilience measures, and recommend required expertise for quality assurance of projects involving dams in seismic areas.
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    Hydrological Risk
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    This Technical Note contains a level of technical detail that non-specialists can use for guidance in addressing the hydrological aspects of dam projects early in the project preparation. It is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies and investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation and implementation. The material presented should be used to prepare terms of reference on such studies and to assess the adequacy of methodology proposed by consultants in response to tenders for advisory services. It is recommended that, reading the Note, the client and the World Bank project teams will assess the required level of hydrological expertise in the teams. The hydrological subjects this Note covers are typical in World Bank–supported operations. There are several other subjects pertaining to hydrology that it does not cover. Enlarging the scope to those subjects will defeat the objective and turn the Note into a handbook on the vast discipline of hydrology. The same selective effort has been applied in choosing the references that the reader can consult to focus on specific subjects. For that reason, the list has been limited to essential references that provide general guidance on required hydrology studies, whereas the additional sources complement the general guidance with references dealing with specific aspects of the project hydrology.
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    Potential Failure Mode Analysis
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Potential failure modes analysis (PFMA) is a process to systematically identify, describe, and evaluate the ways in which a dam and its appurtenant structures could fail under postulated loading conditions. Since 2002, PFMA has been introduced as part of five-year inspections under the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulations for nonfederal hydropower dams in the United States. The PFMA is intended to provide an understanding of how and why dams fail by looking at how dams behave normally, learning to identify early signs that something is wrong, understanding the hazards and risks imposed by the dam, and being prepared for the unexpected behavior that leads to failure. The World Bank has assisted some countries in applying the PFMA for safety review of major existing dams and found that the tool is useful in prioritizing additional investigations needs and remedial works in coordination with key stakeholders, including owners, operators, and designers. This Technical Note contains guidance for preparing PFMA terms of reference for: (a) the FERC-based standard approach to PFMA; and (b) a simplified PFMA approach.
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    Small Dam Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Small dams play an important role in the provision of many kinds of benefits, such as drinking and irrigation water supply, flood control, small/mini hydropower generation, fishing, and so on. They are particularly important in rural and agricultural areas. Agriculture remains an engine of rural growth and poverty reduction in developing countries. Agricultural water management (AWM) can change the lives of millions of people by improving yields, reducing risks linked to climate variability, and increasing income for farmers. The demand for water storage is increasing as farmers and rural communities are more frequently facing water shortages for their crops and livestock. This demand is in part driven by climate change and increasing variability and scarcity observed around the globe. This note provides some lessons on how to address the challenges of small dam management with participation of community groups and effective government support for them.
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    Tailings Storage Facilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-22) World Bank
    Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are engineered structures that comprise the confining embankments (commonly referred to as tailings dams) and associated works and are designed to contain tailings (residue following extraction of valuable material from metal ore processing) and to manage associated water. TSF contains mixed waste material from mining processes in liquid or slurry form and must be responsibly managed to prevent impacts on human health and safety, the environment, and other infrastructure. However, TSFs have historically suffered more problems than water storage dams. Internationally, TSFs have a historical long-term average of more than one major incident or failure per year. To manage mining facilities responsibly, the TSF owner must understand the physical and chemical risks associated with the TSF and implement controls to reduce risks relating to potential health, safety, environmental, societal, business, and economic impacts in line with regulations. International organizations, regulators and industries have developed guidelines to aid owners in the management of TSFs. These guidelines were used to develop this Technical Note. The Note is intended to raise awareness and inform specific studies/investigations, as appropriate, during project preparation.
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    Good Practice Note on Dam Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) World Bank
    The objective of this good practice note (GPN) on dam safety is to provide additional guidance to World Bank staff on the application of relevant requirements under the environmental and social framework (ESF). This GPN provides guidance on using a risk management approach to the application of the dam safety requirements. The guidance contained in this note is designed to enhance the quality of practice without creating new requirements for the application of the ESF. The GPN provides guidance on compliance requirements, a risk management approach to dam safety, risk analysis tools, quality of information and capacity, application to World Bank operations, and procedural aspects. The GPN pertains to: (a) construction of new dams or dams under construction (DUC) under investment project financing (IPF); (b) rehabilitation of existing dams under IPF; and (c) existing dams or DUC that are not financed under IPF, on which the project relies or may rely.
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    Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World Bank
    The development of Maturity Matrices for Institutional Benchmarking of Dam Safety in Indonesia provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of the operation, maintenance, surveillance and emergency preparedness programs adopted by dam authorities. Matrices were developed for dam owners and operators to assess the effectiveness of dam safety programs against in-country standards and guidelines, or, good industry practice as considered most appropriate. The matrices were developed through an iterative and consultative process that included a detailed review of the legal hierarchy, specific dam safety regulations and technical guidelines, the roles and responsibilities of the different institutions involved, followed by expert review and verification. The primary benefit of using dam safety-related Maturity Matrices is to improve the understanding of dam safety programs across a range of different metrics. This allows owners and operators to monitor performance over time and inform the prioritization of resources for dam operation, maintenance and safety improvement. The matrices also allow regulatory bodies to assess performance across different owners and operators, and contrast the effectiveness across dam management units to identify systemic issues and target interventions and remedies accordingly.