Enriquez, Santiago

Global Practice on Environment and Natural Resources, The World Bank
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environmental policy, environmental institutions, sustainable development, green growth, climate change
Global Practice on Environment and Natural Resources, The World Bank
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Santiago Enriquez is an international consultant with more than 18 years of experience in the design, implementation, and evaluation of policies relating to the environment, conservation, and climate change. He has developed analytical work for the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, and the Inter-American Development Bank on topics that include mainstreaming of environmental and climate change considerations in key economic sectors, institutional and organizational analyses to strengthen environmental management, and policy-based strategic environmental assessments. From 1998 to 2002, he worked at the International Affairs Unit of Mexico’s Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Santiago holds an MA in public policy from the Harvard Kennedy School.

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-06-26) Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Afzal, Javaid ; Nakagawa, Akiko ; Khan, Asif Shuja
    Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution, given current resource limitations. The book also includes a review of secondary sources, focusing on recent analysis of the effects of different air pollutants on human health, as well as lessons learned from ongoing regional and international efforts to improve ambient air quality. This book has seven chapters. Chapter one gives overview. Chapter two identifies major trends in ambient air pollution, including concentration levels of main pollutants and the identification of principal sources. Chapter three examines the evolution of Pakistan's air quality management (AQM) framework over the period 1993 to 2013. Chapter four examines options to control air pollution from mobile sources, the main contributors of several air pollutants, including noxious fine particulate matter (PM) and its precursors. Chapter five addresses measures to tackle pollution from industrial sources. Chapter six identifies synergies of interventions for air pollution control and climate change mitigation. Chapter seven summarizes the main conclusions of the book.
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    Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan : Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance
    (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014-07-24) Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Biller, Dan ; Nabi, Ijaz ; Ortolano, Leonard ; Dezfuli, Ghazal ; Afzal, Javaid ; Enriquez, Santiago
    Pakistan s population is growing and becoming more urbanized. By 2020, Karachi and Lahore will each have a population of well over 10 million people and several other cities will have a population of at least one million. These trends offer both risks and opportunities. Badly managed urban centers with poor services and slim opportunity for gainful employment could become centers of discontent and social conflict. Alternatively, properly managed and well-connected cities can help firms become more competitive, and with the right set of policies, promote industrialization and life-changing employment opportunities. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, Pakistan will need to take decisive steps to deepen the pool of skills, strengthen the commercial environment, upgrade infrastructure, diversify production, and climb up the technology ladder. Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan: Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance addresses ways in which Pakistan can revitalize its manufacturing by reducing the cost of doing business, improving the investment climate, and strengthening institutions to facilitate the flow of people, goods, and ideas and thus stimulate medium-term growth and job creation. Such revitalization is sorely needed to place the country on a sustained path of high economic growth. The authors lay out priorities and strategies for greening Pakistan s industrial growth and provide a comprehensive analysis of issues in the debate on this strategy. They examine the ways in which Pakistan can encourage and assist its private sector to fill the void in low-skilled labor-intensive manufacturing left by other economies and do so while creating and distributing new wealth. To increase the chances of success, appropriate actions will need to come from different actors in government, the private sector, and civil society. This book will be of interest to government officials and academic researchers working in the fields of industry, the environment, and energy, as well as to the general public.
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    Sustainability and Poverty Alleviation: Confronting Environmental Threats in Sindh, Pakistan
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015-07-14) Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Larsen, Bjorn ; Webster, Peter ; Afzal, Javaid ; Strukova Golub, Elena ; Raza, Hammad ; Ali, Mosuf ; Rajani, P. S.
    The underlying goal of this book is to facilitate and stimulate sharing of information on these phenomena and to provide an interdisciplinary framework for bringing about improved environmental conditions in Sindh. The book offers methods to identify environmental and climate change priority problems; analyzes interventions to address such problems; establishes a social learning mechanism to continuously improve Sindh’s responses and build resilience to climate variability and change; and provides opportunities for stakeholders to be involved in decisively tackling climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions.
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    Energy Subsidy Reform Assessment Framework: Local Environmental Externalities Due to Energy Price Subsidies — A Focus on Air Pollution and Health
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-30) Enriquez, Santiago ; Larsen, Bjorn ; Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto
    This note aims to provide an overview and guidance on the use of tools to assess the environmental and health effects of changes in the levels of fine particulate matter caused by higher consumption of energy due to subsidized prices at the country level. It also provides information to help practitioners develop reliable estimates even in the absence of data and with limited resources. The topic of the note is highly complex and involves multiple fields and disciplines. The note attempts to reduce such complexity by breaking the assessment down into several distinct steps, each with its own methodologies. The note is intended to serve as a source of resources and practical advice to guide practitioners along each of these steps. This note focuses the analysis of price subsidies on primary and secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5, atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 microns), the pollutant with the largest health effects worldwide, and using intake fractions to estimate population exposure to PM2.5 from fossil fuels and solid biomass. This approach is like that of recent global studies of energy price subsidies and taxes. The intake fractions are combined with the relative-risk functions for major health outcomes of air pollution from the Global Burden of Disease study to estimate the health effects associated with energy price subsidies. The note proposes three geographic-demographic scales: urban areas with a population over 100,000, urban areas with a population less than 100,000, and rural areas. The note also discusses the availability of monitoring measurement data and alternative options for determining ambient PM2.5 concentrations at the proposed geographic-demographic scale, as well as approaches to deal with data scarcity. The method for estimating the economic value of mortality caused by air pollution follows a recent World Bank report, using a cross-country transfer method of the value of statistical life (VSL). In addition, the note proposes methods for incorporating valuation of increased illness, although morbidity is generally found to constitute a relatively minor share of the health costs of air pollution.
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    Opportunities for Environmentally Healthy, Inclusive, and Resilient Growth in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020) Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Ruitenbeek, Jack ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Siegmann, Katharina ; Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Ruitenbeek, Jack ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Siegmann, Katharina ; Larsen, Bjorn ; Pethick, John ; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio ; Strukova Golub, Elena ; Skjelvik, John Magne ; Cufari, Daniele
    Approximately 4.1 million people live in the three states of the Yucatán Peninsula: Quintana Roo, Yucatán, and Campeche. Some 30 municipalities are in a coastal territory of almost 2,000 linear kilometers, spanning the oil fields of the Gulf of Mexico to the world-renowned beaches of Cancún, just north of the second-largest barrier reef in the world. The peninsula's natural assets also include notable Mayan temples. With poverty far from eliminated, and economic development opportunities beckoning in agriculture, manufacturing, and hydrocarbon development, the region faces growing risks from environmental hazards. Oil spills, hurricanes, coral bleaching, extreme flooding, and erosion have all been experienced over the past decade. Based on preliminary identification of environmental priorities, this report explores selected topics that aim to inform decision-making in the region. A general context of integrated coastal zone management is used to explore issues, constraints, and potential solutions. The role of geomorphology is examined with a view to identifying how shore management plans can contribute to improved coastal management. Economic studies find that the main environmental health risks in the peninsula result in more than 1,000 premature deaths every year and in more than 9.36 million days lost to illnesses. These risks generate substantial economic losses, representing 2.2–3.3 percent of gross regional income. Scenarios relating to the economic cost of extreme weather events generate similar levels of damages: 1.4–1.5 percent of GDP in 2020 and 1.6–2.3 percent of GDP in 2050. A social accounting matrix examines the social and environmental interconnectedness to the various parts of the economy. An institutional analysis considers the mandates of existing institutions in the states, and of the potential role that regulatory measures may contribute to environmentally sustainable development without undermining economic growth prospects. The report concludes with options for consideration in the years ahead.
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    Recycling of Used Lead-Acid Batteries: Guidelines for Appraisal of Environmental Health Impacts
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) von Stackelberg, Katherine ; Williams, Pamela ; Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Enriquez, Santiago
    This framework document provides a pragmatic framework for designing representative studies and developing uniform sampling guidelines to support estimates of morbidity that are explicitly linked to exposure to land-based contaminants from used lead acid battery recycling (ULAB) activities. A primary goal is to support environmental burden of disease evaluations, which attempt to attribute health outcomes to specific sources of pollution. The guidelines provide recommendations on the most appropriate and cost-effective sampling and analysis methods to ensure the collection of representative population-level data, sample size recommendations for each contaminant and environmental media, biological sampling data, household survey data, and health outcome data. These guidelines focus on small-scale ULABs that are known to generate significant amounts of lead waste through the smelting process, as well as other metals including arsenic and cadmium. A primary concern with lead exposures is the documented association with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children as demonstrated by statistically significantly reduced performance on a battery of cognitive tests. These associations are evident even in the youngest children, and toxicological and epidemiologic data indicate these effects have no threshold. Other potential exposures include arsenic and cadmium, and exposure to these contaminants is also associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, as well as arsenicosis, bladder, lung, and skin cancers, and renal outcomes. The primary objective of this framework document is to guide research to assess the relationship between environmental contamination, exposures, and health outcomes related to a subset of contaminants originating from ULAB activities for particularly vulnerable populations (such as children) and the general population within a single household in the vicinity of ULAB sites in low- and middle-income countries. To achieve this objective, biomonitoring and health outcome data are linked to household survey and environmental data (for example, soil, dust, water, and agricultural products) at the individual level from an exposed population compared to individuals from an unexposed (reference) population. Data on exposures and health outcomes in the same individual across a representative set of individuals is required to support an understanding of the potential impact of ULAB activities on local populations. The guidelines can also assist in building local capacity to conduct environmental assessments following a consistent methodology to facilitate comparability across ULAB sites in different geographic areas. Sampling strategies and methods are prioritized given information needs, resource availability, and other constraints or considerations. The framework document includes a number of supporting appendixes that provide additional resources and references on relevant topics. Data obtained following these recommendations can be used to support consistent, comparable, and standardized community risk and health impact assessments at contaminated sites in low- and middle-income countries. These data can also be used to support economic analyses and risk management decision making for evaluating site cleanup and risk mitigation options in the most cost-effective and efficient manner. Following these recommendations will facilitate comparisons and meta-analyses across studies by standardizing data collection efforts at the community level.