Global Practice on Environment and Natural Resources, The World Bank
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
water resource management, environmental management, environmental safeguards
Global Practice on Environment and Natural Resources, The World Bank
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated January 31, 2023
Javaid Afzal is a senior environmental specialist at the World Bank’s Islamabad, Pakistan, office. His responsibilities include moving the environment development agenda forward with client government agencies. He also task manages operations in water resources and the environment, and provides environmental safeguards support for the Bank’s South Asia Region. He previously worked at a leading consulting company in Pakistan. He holds a PhD in water resources management from Cranfield University, United Kingdom, and an MSc and BSc in agricultural engineering from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. He has also published in a number of peer-reviewed journals on the aforementioned topics.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Greening Growth in Pakistan through Transport Sector Reforms : Strategic Environmental, Poverty, and Social Assessment(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013) Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Afzal, Javaid ; Biller, Dan ; Malik, SohailThe Government of Pakistan's (GoP's) 2011 Framework for Economic Growth seeks to place Pakistan on a sustained high economic growth path of 7 percent per year through measures to reduce the cost of doing business, improve the investment climate, and strengthen institutions. Trade and transport reforms are central to achieve the Framework's goals. The transport sector constitutes 10 percent of Pakistan's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provides 6 percent of the employment in the country. The sector plays an important role in linking other sectors in the economy, contributes to both domestic and international trade, and helps facilitate the spatial transformation occurring in Pakistan. The present patterns in transport and trade logistics generate inefficiencies that are costing Pakistan's economy roughly 4-6 percent of GDP per year, which is a major constraint on the aspirations set out in the Framework. This report examines the poverty, social, and environmental aspects associated with trade and transport sector reforms aimed at increasing the freight transport sector's productivity to meet the Framework's goals. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 1 provides the objectives and methodology of this work. Chapter 2 discusses the sector status and the trade and transport policy reforms. Chapter 3 establishes the priority issues associated with freight transport reform. Chapters 4 and 5 focused on the social and environmental aspects of the reform, respectively. And chapters 6 and 7 conclude the report by discussing policy options to promote environmentally and socially sustainable trade and transport and an agenda to advance environmentally and socially sustainable trade and transport reforms in Pakistan.
Cleaner Production in Pakistan's Leather and Textile Sectors(Elsevier, 2014-04) Ortolano, Leonard ; Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Afzal, Javaid ; Ali, Chaudhary Laiq ; Rebellón, Susan A.This study evaluates the dissemination of cleaner production in Pakistan’s industrial sector by assessing the performance of two of Pakistan’s three cleaner production (CP) centers. The study examines the adoption of CP measures by firms, as well as firms’ compliance with Pakistan’s National Environmental Quality Standards and certification to ISO 14001. A survey of 80 leather tanneries and textiles processing firms served by a CP center is the primary data source. Surveyed firms adopted the majority of CP measures proposed by the centers, even though firms had little understanding of CP concepts. Many of the commonly reported factors motivating CP adoption were present, but one was conspicuously absent: the need to meet ambient environmental quality standards. Survey results also indicate that firm size and engagement with foreign business customers are correlated with: the adoption of CP, the establishment of environmental management systems and certification to ISO 14001.
Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-06-26) Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Afzal, Javaid ; Nakagawa, Akiko ; Khan, Asif ShujaPakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution, given current resource limitations. The book also includes a review of secondary sources, focusing on recent analysis of the effects of different air pollutants on human health, as well as lessons learned from ongoing regional and international efforts to improve ambient air quality. This book has seven chapters. Chapter one gives overview. Chapter two identifies major trends in ambient air pollution, including concentration levels of main pollutants and the identification of principal sources. Chapter three examines the evolution of Pakistan's air quality management (AQM) framework over the period 1993 to 2013. Chapter four examines options to control air pollution from mobile sources, the main contributors of several air pollutants, including noxious fine particulate matter (PM) and its precursors. Chapter five addresses measures to tackle pollution from industrial sources. Chapter six identifies synergies of interventions for air pollution control and climate change mitigation. Chapter seven summarizes the main conclusions of the book.
Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan : Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance(Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014-07-24) Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Biller, Dan ; Nabi, Ijaz ; Ortolano, Leonard ; Dezfuli, Ghazal ; Afzal, Javaid ; Enriquez, SantiagoPakistan s population is growing and becoming more urbanized. By 2020, Karachi and Lahore will each have a population of well over 10 million people and several other cities will have a population of at least one million. These trends offer both risks and opportunities. Badly managed urban centers with poor services and slim opportunity for gainful employment could become centers of discontent and social conflict. Alternatively, properly managed and well-connected cities can help firms become more competitive, and with the right set of policies, promote industrialization and life-changing employment opportunities. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, Pakistan will need to take decisive steps to deepen the pool of skills, strengthen the commercial environment, upgrade infrastructure, diversify production, and climb up the technology ladder. Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan: Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance addresses ways in which Pakistan can revitalize its manufacturing by reducing the cost of doing business, improving the investment climate, and strengthening institutions to facilitate the flow of people, goods, and ideas and thus stimulate medium-term growth and job creation. Such revitalization is sorely needed to place the country on a sustained path of high economic growth. The authors lay out priorities and strategies for greening Pakistan s industrial growth and provide a comprehensive analysis of issues in the debate on this strategy. They examine the ways in which Pakistan can encourage and assist its private sector to fill the void in low-skilled labor-intensive manufacturing left by other economies and do so while creating and distributing new wealth. To increase the chances of success, appropriate actions will need to come from different actors in government, the private sector, and civil society. This book will be of interest to government officials and academic researchers working in the fields of industry, the environment, and energy, as well as to the general public.
Sustainability and Poverty Alleviation: Confronting Environmental Threats in Sindh, Pakistan(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015-07-14) Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Enriquez, Santiago ; Larsen, Bjorn ; Webster, Peter ; Afzal, Javaid ; Strukova Golub, Elena ; Raza, Hammad ; Ali, Mosuf ; Rajani, P. S.The underlying goal of this book is to facilitate and stimulate sharing of information on these phenomena and to provide an interdisciplinary framework for bringing about improved environmental conditions in Sindh. The book offers methods to identify environmental and climate change priority problems; analyzes interventions to address such problems; establishes a social learning mechanism to continuously improve Sindh’s responses and build resilience to climate variability and change; and provides opportunities for stakeholders to be involved in decisively tackling climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions.
Green Industrial Growth : Mainstreaming Environmental Sustainability in Pakistan's Industrial Sector(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08) Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto ; Ortolano, Leonard ; Afzal, JavaidPakistan's growth strategy for the economy, as outlined in the 2011 framework for economic growth, calls for reinvigorating the industrial sector and increasing exports. The industrial structure of the country has not experienced any significant changes in the past thirty years. Inadequate industrial environmental performance is an important contributor to the weak export performance of Pakistan's industrial sectors. The relationship between Pakistan's goals for industrial expansion and export growth and the environmental performance of Pakistani firms is the central theme of this report, which is framed as follows: Pakistan's industry is outdated and risks losing markets at a time when it may have the opportunity to occupy the space being left by manufacturing giants like China. This report is organized as follows: chapter two sets the stage for the remaining chapters by discussing the relationships between industrial development and environmental degradation in Pakistan. Chapter three summarizes empirically established linkages between environmental performance and export competitiveness, and 14,001 by firms surveyed as part of this Non-Lending Technical Assistance (NLTA). Chapter four analyzes the institutional, regulatory, and firm-level impediments to improved environmental performance, including barriers to cleaner production. Chapter five evaluates the effectiveness of current Cleaner Production (CP) initiatives carried out by Pakistan's cleaner production centers, and Chapter six recommends potential interventions that could be undertaken by the Government of Pakistan to maintain and enhance the competiveness of Pakistan's firms by improving their environmental performance.